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For safety and for environmental considerations Round Trip Airport Transfers in River Club, most airports are built far away from cities and other residential areas. This poses an issue of traveling to and from the airport. People need transportation to the airfield when they are flying out and need to reach the airfield in time to catch their flight. Likewise, Airport Car Service after landing at the airfield from a flight, transport from the airfield to the city is required. Both the issues are solved with private operators operating lax airfield car services.Transportation utilities provide luxury car services to and from the airport.

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These are mainly chauffeur driven cars, for which travelers may book reservations online. This facility comes as a great advantage to the commuter. With an online reservation system, the traveler is confident that he will be picked up from his hotel, office or home by a cab and taken to the airport right on-time to catch his flight, the service being guaranteed.Most transportation utilities track national and international flights. Therefore, the commuter may rest assured that the transportation from the aerodrome will be available and waiting for him, even if the flight arrives late into the night.

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The traveler no longer has to depend on rented cars and driving them through rush-hour traffic. After the long journey by flight, Best Taxi Service he could take the luxurious, relaxing ride to his hotel, home or office.They have professional chauffeurs who have been trained to accommodate customer needs. They possess the required expertise and knowledge to conduct the traveler to and from the destination. They know the city roads like the back of their hands and can help the traveler reach his destination on time, even if the normal city roads are choked with traffic.

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Airport car service providers value the relationship with their customers and strive to maintain the required professionalism that is expected from such executive luxury service. These smart luxury car services are hard to forget once their utility has been realized.

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Taxi Service To Airport Price   (Redirected from Shuttle bus service) A transit bus operating in Campinas, Brazil

Public transport bus services are generally based on regular operation of transit buses along a route calling at agreed bus stops according to a published public transport timetable.

Parisian Omnibus, late nineteenth century A public transport timetable for bus services in England in the 1940s and 1950s

While there are indications of experiments with public transport in Paris as early as 1662,[1][2][3] there is evidence of a scheduled "bus route" from Market Street in Manchester to Pendleton in Salford UK, started by John Greenwood in 1824.[4]

Another claim for the first public transport system for general use originated in Nantes, France, in 1826. Stanislas Baudry, a retired army officer who had built public baths using the surplus heat from his flour mill on the city's edge, set up a short route between the center of town and his baths. The service started on the Place du Commerce, outside the hat shop of a M. Omnès, who displayed the motto Omnès Omnibus (Latin for "everything for everybody" or "all for all") on his shopfront. When Baudry discovered that passengers were just as interested in getting off at intermediate points as in patronizing his baths, he changed the route's focus. His new voiture omnibus ("carriage for all") combined the functions of the hired hackney carriage with a stagecoach that travelled a predetermined route from inn to inn, carrying passengers and mail. His omnibus had wooden benches that ran down the sides of the vehicle; passengers entered from the rear.

In 1828, Baudry went to Paris where he founded a company under the name Entreprise générale des omnibus de Paris, while his son Edmond Baudry founded two similar companies in Bordeaux and in Lyon.[5]

A London newspaper reported on July 4, 1829 that "the new vehicle, called the omnibus, commenced running this morning from Paddington to the City", operated by George Shillibeer.

The first omnibus service in New York began in 1829, when Abraham Brower, an entrepreneur who had organized volunteer fire companies, established a route along Broadway starting at Bowling Green. Other American cities soon followed suit: Philadelphia in 1831, Boston in 1835 and Baltimore in 1844. In most cases, the city governments granted a private company—generally a small stableman already in the livery or freight-hauling business—an exclusive franchise to operate public coaches along a specified route. In return, the company agreed to maintain certain minimum levels of service.

In 1832 the New York omnibus had a rival when the first trams, or streecars started operation along Bowery,[6] which offered the excellent improvement in amenity of riding on smooth iron rails rather than clattering over granite setts, called "Belgian blocks". The streetcars were financed by John Mason, a wealthy banker, and built by an Irish-American contractor, John Stephenson. The Fifth Avenue Coach Company introduced electric buses to Fifth Avenue in New York in 1898.

In 1831, New Yorker Washington Irving remarked of Britain's Reform Act (finally passed in 1832): "The great reform omnibus moves but slowly." Steam buses emerged in the 1830s as competition to the horse-drawn buses.

The omnibus extended the reach of the emerging cities. The walk from the former village of Paddington to the business heart of London in the City was a long one, even for a young man in good condition. The omnibus thus offered the suburbs more access to the inner city. The omnibus encouraged urbanization. Socially, the omnibus put city-dwellers, even if for only half an hour, into previously-unheard-of physical intimacy with strangers, squeezing them together knee-to-knee. Only the very poor remained excluded. A new division in urban society now came to the fore, dividing those who kept carriages from those who did not. The idea of the "carriage trade", the folk who never set foot in the streets, who had goods brought out from the shops for their appraisal, has its origins in the omnibus crush.

John D. Hertz founded the Yellow Coach Manufacturing Company in 1923 and then sold a majority of shares to General Motors in 1925.

From the 1920s General Motors and others started buying up streetcar systems across the United States with a view to replacing them with buses in what became known as the Great American Streetcar Scandal.[7] This was accompanied by a continuing series of technical improvements: pneumatic "balloon" tires during the early 1920s, monocoque body construction in 1931, automatic transmission in 1936, diesel engines in 1936, 50+ passengers in 1948, and air suspension in 1953.[8]

The arrest of Rosa Parks in 1955 for not giving up her seat to a white man on a public bus is considered one of the catalyst of the Civil Rights Movement within the United States.

A bi-articulated bus on the RIT bus rapid transit system in Curitiba, Brazil An urban bus in Gómez Palacio, Durango, Mexico.

The names of different types of bus services vary according to local tradition or marketing, although services can be classified into basic types based on route length, frequency, purpose of use and type of bus used.

Long-distance coach services (US: Intercity bus line) are bus services operated over long distances between cities. These services can form the mainstay of the travel network in countries with poor railway infrastructure. Different coach operators may band together on a franchise or connecting basis to offer a branded network that covers large distances, such as Trailways and National Express. These networks can even operate internationally, such as Eurolines of Europe. Interurban bus services are primarily aimed at linking together one or more urban centres, and as such are often run as express services while travelling in the intermediate rural areas, or even only call at two terminal points as a long distance shuttle service. Some interurban services may be operated as high specification luxury services, using coaches, in order to compete with railways, or link areas not rail connected. Interurban services may often terminate in central bus stations rather than on street stops. Other interurban services may specifically call at intermediate villages and may use slower transit buses or dual purpose buses.


A shuttle bus service in Sydney. School Bus See also: Public transport timetable

Many public bus services are run to a specific timetable giving specific times of departure and arrival at waypoints along the route. These are often difficult to maintain in the event of traffic congestion, breakdowns, on/off bus incidents, road blockages or bad weather. Predictable effects such as morning and evening rush hour traffic are often accounted for in timetables using past experience of the effects, although this then prevents the opportunity for drafting a ‘clock face’ timetable where the time of a bus is predictable at any time through the day. Predictable short term increases in passenger numbers may be dealt with by providing “duplicate” buses, where two or more buses operate the same slot in the timetable. Unpredictable problems resulting in delays and gaps in the timetabled service may be dealt with by ‘turning’ a bus early before it reaches it terminus, so that it can fill a gap in the opposite direction, meaning any passengers on the turned bus need to disembark and continue on a following bus. Also, depending on the location of the bus depot, replacement buses may be dispatched from the depot to fill in other gaps, starting the timetable part way along the route.

There is a common cliché that people “wait all day, and then three come along at once”, in relation to a phenomenon where evenly timetabled bus services can develop a gap in service followed by buses turning up almost simultaneously. This occurs when the rush hour begins and numbers of passengers at a stop increases, increasing the loading time, and thus delay scheduled service. The following bus then catches up because it begins to be delayed less at stops due to fewer passengers waiting. This is called bus bunching. This is prevented in some cities such as Berlin by assigning every stop arrival times where scheduled buses should arrive no earlier than specified.

Some services may have no specific departure times, the timetable giving the frequency of service on a route at particular phases of the day. This may be specified with departure times, but the over-riding factor is ensuring the regularity of buses arriving at stops. These are often the more frequent services, up to the busiest bus rapid transit schemes. For headway-based schemes, problems can be managed by changing speed, delaying at stops and leap-frogging a bus boarding at a stop.

Services may be strictly regulated in terms of level of adherence to timetables, and how often timetables may be changed. Operators and authorities may employ on street bus inspectors to monitor adherence in real time. Service operators often have a control room, or in the case of large operations, route controllers, who can monitor the level of service on routes and can take remedial action if problems occur. This was made easier with the technological advances of two way radio contact with drivers, and vehicle tracking systems.

Bus services have led to the implementation of various types of infrastructure now common in many urban and suburban settings. The most prevalent example is the ubiquitous bus stop. Large interchanges have required the building of bus stations. In roads and streets, infrastructure for buses has resulted in modifications to the kerb line such as protrusions and indentations, and even special kerb stones. Entire lanes or roads have been reserved for buses in bus lanes or busways. Bus fleets require large storage premises often located in urban areas, and may also make use of central works facilities.

Bus station in rural Russia See also: On-time performance

The level and reliability of bus services is often dependent on the quality of the local road network and levels of traffic congestion, and the population density. Services may be organised on tightly regulated networks with restrictions on when and where services operate, while other services are operated on an ad hoc basis in the model of share taxis.

Increasingly, technology is being used to improve the information provided to bus users, with vehicle tracking technologies to assist with scheduling, and to achieve real time integration with passenger information systems that display service information at stops, inside buses, and to waiting passengers through personal mobile devices or text messaging.

Bus drivers may be required to conduct fare collection, inspect a travel pass or free travel pass, or oversee stored-value card debiting. This may require the fitting of equipment to the bus. Alternatively, this duty and equipment may be delegated to a conductor who rides on the bus. In other areas, public transport buses may operate on a zero-fare basis, or ticket validation may be through use of on-board/off-board proof-of-payment systems, checked by roving ticket controllers who board and alight buses at random.

In some competitive systems, an incumbent operator may introduce a “low cost unit” paying lower wages, in order to be able to offer lower fares, using older buses cascaded from a main fleet to also reduce costs. In some sectors, operators such as Megabus (both in the UK and in North America) have attempted to emulate the low cost airlines model in order to attract passengers through low fares, by offering no frills bus services.

See also: List of bus operating companies

Public transport bus operation is differentiated from other bus operation by the fact the owner or driver of a bus is employed by or contracted to an organisation whose main public duty or commercial interest is to provide a public transport service for passengers to turn up and use, rather than fulfilling private contracts between the bus operator and user. Public transport buses are operated as a common carrier under a contract of carriage between the passenger and the operator.

The owners of public transport buses may be the municipal authority or transit authority that operates them, or they may be owned by individuals or private companies who operate them on behalf of the authorities on a franchise or contract basis. Other buses may be run entirely as private concerns, either on an owner-driver basis, or as multi-national transport groups. Some countries have specifically deregulated their bus services, allowing private operators to provide public bus services. In this case, an authority may make up the shortfall in levels of private service provision by funding or operating ‘socially necessary’ services, such as early or late services, on the weekends, or less busy routes. Ownership/operation of public transport buses can also take the form of a charitable operation or not for profit social enterprises.

Larger operations may have fleets of thousands of vehicles. At its peak in the 1950s, the London Transport Executive owned a bus fleet of 8,000 buses, the largest in the world. Many small operators have only a few vehicles or a single bus owned by an owner driver. Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation holds the Guinness world record of having largest fleet of buses with 22,555 buses.[9]

In all cases in the developed world, public transport bus services are usually subject to some form of legal control in terms of vehicle safety standards and method of operation, and possibly the level of fares charged and routes operated.

Increasingly bus services are being made accessible, often in response to regulations and recommendations laid out in disability discrimination laws. This has resulted in the introduction of flexible bus services, and the introduction of Low-floor buses with features aimed at helping elderly, disabled or impaired passengers.

Why Hire Airport Limousine Service

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Hong Kong is always bustling with life and it is one of the most happening tourist spots all year round. The city's wonderful culture and traditions with its festivals and events attract tourists from all over the world. So, to support this thriving and ever growing tourism industry, one of the most important aspects that have to be dealt with is transport services. Tourists should be able to travel from one place to another with ease and for this Hong Kong Airport has introduced Airport Transfer and Vehicles Service. This helps tourists reach their hotels easily, without having to worry about directions or also helps them reach their travel destinations.Hong Kong Airport Shuttle ServiceFor the first time visitors, it is often a difficult task to find their way through the busy, lively streets of Hong Kong. Though they are aware of their destinations, which streets to take or how to get there can be confusing. This is where the Airport Shuttle Service comes to make things easier. The tourists are able to avoid the hassle of standing in a queue to book a ride or trying to find a cab, as they are able to pre book their ride on the shuttle. The shuttle service has two parts to it; one, it picks up the tourists from the airport and drops them at their hotel, and two, it also picks up tourists from their hotels and drops them at the airport, ensuring a smooth ride without any problems.• Hong Kong Private Arrival Transfer: This service takes the clients from the airport to their hotel. The service costs $79.• Hong Kong Private Departure Transfer: For those who want to be picked up from the hotel and dropped at the airport, this service is ideal and reasonably priced at $79. Another version of the Hong Kong Private Departure Service helps clients travel from the Kai Tak Cruise Terminal to the Airport. This service too costs $79.Other transfer services to or from the Hong Kong Airport include limousine service, private car service and also van services and rentals. All these transfer and vehicles services aim to provide utmost comfort to their passengers and all travelers have found these services to be extremely convenient and time saving. The staff of all these services is dedicated and also often English speaking which helps the passengers communicate better.Hong Kong being an important hub for businesses, industries and trading centers, is bustling with traffic and its airport is one of the places which has to have good transfer and vehicles services. This is exactly what is provided to make all journeys the best and the most reliable.

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For safety and for environmental considerations Airport Transfers Orlando in Rivonia, most airports are built far away from cities and other residential areas. This poses an issue of traveling to and from the airport. People need transportation to the airfield when they are flying out and need to reach the airfield in time to catch their flight. Likewise, Taxi From The Airport after landing at the airfield from a flight, transport from the airfield to the city is required. Both the issues are solved with private operators operating lax airfield car services.Transportation utilities provide luxury car services to and from the airport.

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These are mainly chauffeur driven cars, for which travelers may book reservations online. This facility comes as a great advantage to the commuter. With an online reservation system, the traveler is confident that he will be picked up from his hotel, office or home by a cab and taken to the airport right on-time to catch his flight, the service being guaranteed.Most transportation utilities track national and international flights. Therefore, the commuter may rest assured that the transportation from the aerodrome will be available and waiting for him, even if the flight arrives late into the night.

Airport Car Service Cost

The traveler no longer has to depend on rented cars and driving them through rush-hour traffic. After the long journey by flight, The Shuttle Bus he could take the luxurious, relaxing ride to his hotel, home or office.They have professional chauffeurs who have been trained to accommodate customer needs. They possess the required expertise and knowledge to conduct the traveler to and from the destination. They know the city roads like the back of their hands and can help the traveler reach his destination on time, even if the normal city roads are choked with traffic.

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Airport car service providers value the relationship with their customers and strive to maintain the required professionalism that is expected from such executive luxury service. These smart luxury car services are hard to forget once their utility has been realized.

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In this age of technology, we are blessed with many comforts of life. We are saved from many hardships which our forefathers had to go through. We have become more comfort oriented. Today many machines work for us while we sit comfortably. Transportation is one of the blessings of this modern world. Before the invention of cars, people used to walk for days to travel from one place to another. With transportation, our lives have become easier and the world is transformed into a global village. Today if you don't possess your own car there is no need to worry as there is much public transportation available. The best transportation in Denver is the Denver Airport Car service. They are reasonably priced and reliable.With your own car you have to look out for the parking, pay the parking tickets, and make sure that your car is parked well. The driver of the hired car will drop you right before the door of your destination, thus you will be free from all the hassle of parking and parking tickets. If a group of people have to travel together, then these DIA transportation rental companies have bigger cars too like Denver Airport Limousines that are perfect for a corporate delegation or even for your personal use. Thus Denver Airport car service is reliable and can be used anywhere for any occasion.

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For many people, employing an airport car service--be it a taxi, town car, or even shuttle--seems like a foreign concept. Many of us are used to either taking care of our own travel needs or calling on friends to drop us off or pick us up. While these two options are certainly wonderful, they don't work in every situation. They also may not be the best way to start or end your journey in terms of making the best use of your time, and keeping your stress level to a minimum. Even if you decide to stick with the DIY travel style, you should know that there are affordable and efficient airport travel alternatives available to you should you choose to employ them.As anyone who has ever been to an airport knows, taxis are a frequently used mode of transportation for either leaving or arriving at the airport. If you are traveling to the airport, making an appointment with a taxi service for pickup from your home can be a huge help. When you make a reservation for a taxi, they will be able to calculate how much time to allow for travel from your address, and may often even offer a flat fee rate for airport travel. If you (or someone you're making a reservation for, such as a boss or a client) prefer to travel in a bit more style, you can also look into a car service as a transportation option. This gives you the same benefits of a taxi, but with more class and individual attention.If you are able to coordinate your own airport travel without difficulty, or if you simply feel more comfortable handling it on your own, there's no reason not to. If, on the other hand, employing a taxi, town car, or shuttle to assist you in getting to or from the airport would simplify your travel and make it less stressful, you may want to consider employing such a service to help you with your travel needs.

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For safety and for environmental considerations Airport Transfer Cars in Duxberry, most airports are built far away from cities and other residential areas. This poses an issue of traveling to and from the airport. People need transportation to the airfield when they are flying out and need to reach the airfield in time to catch their flight. Likewise, Shuttle Bus Times after landing at the airfield from a flight, transport from the airfield to the city is required. Both the issues are solved with private operators operating lax airfield car services.Transportation utilities provide luxury car services to and from the airport.

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These are mainly chauffeur driven cars, for which travelers may book reservations online. This facility comes as a great advantage to the commuter. With an online reservation system, the traveler is confident that he will be picked up from his hotel, office or home by a cab and taken to the airport right on-time to catch his flight, the service being guaranteed.Most transportation utilities track national and international flights. Therefore, the commuter may rest assured that the transportation from the aerodrome will be available and waiting for him, even if the flight arrives late into the night.

Airport Transportation Service Costs

The traveler no longer has to depend on rented cars and driving them through rush-hour traffic. After the long journey by flight, Taxis To Airport he could take the luxurious, relaxing ride to his hotel, home or office.They have professional chauffeurs who have been trained to accommodate customer needs. They possess the required expertise and knowledge to conduct the traveler to and from the destination. They know the city roads like the back of their hands and can help the traveler reach his destination on time, even if the normal city roads are choked with traffic.

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Airport car service providers value the relationship with their customers and strive to maintain the required professionalism that is expected from such executive luxury service. These smart luxury car services are hard to forget once their utility has been realized.

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The Wiki Wiki Shuttle is a fare-free shuttle bus system at the Honolulu International Airport. Shuttles run between 6:00 am and 10:00 pm local time, carrying people and baggage between the various terminals.

In the Hawaiian language the word "wiki" means quick, and "wiki wiki" implies very quick. The shuttle's name inspired Ward Cunningham to call his new website "WikiWikiWeb" in 1994.[1] Cunningham's site was designed to allow visitors to the site to edit its content, and this type of website came to be known as a "wiki," a prominent example of which is Wikipedia.

"Wiki-Wiki Bus stop" sign at Honolulu International Airport, Hawaii, in 2001

The airport is moving away from dependence on the Wiki Wiki buses, which were put in place in 1970 as "an interim measure". After more than three decades of operations, travelers still complain about the hot, slow, outdated buses. As was reported to the press, not only are the buses somewhat inconvenient and uncomfortable, they also put a huge strain on the building structure due to their weight and level of activity.[2]

In November 2004, local media reported that the shuttle would be replaced by an air-conditioned walkway.[3] The first phase of that change was completed in October 2005, giving international travelers the option of an air-conditioned hallway with a moving sidewalk instead of the open-air buses.[4]

The buses were formerly run by the Aircraft Services International Group. In April 2009, the airport signed a new contract for the shuttle buses to be managed by Roberts Hawaii, and the signage on the shuttles was changed from "WikiWiki shuttle" to "HNL shuttle".[5][6]

In 2013 the buses were still or again in active service in Honolulu airport,[7] but their usage will be reduced for international arrivals thanks to the walkway that has been in use since the end of 2010.[8]

As of 2013 the shuttle is still being used. New buses have been added, and they are once more labelled "Wiki Wiki".[9][10]

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Free public transport, often called fare free public transit or zero-fare public transport, refers to public transport funded in full by means other than collecting fares from passengers. It may be funded by national, regional or local government through taxation or by commercial sponsorship by businesses. The concept of "free-ness" is one that may take other forms, such as no-fare access via a card which may or may not be paid in its entirety by the user.

Tallinn, capital city of Estonia with more than 420,000 inhabitants, and several mid-size European cities and many smaller towns around the world have converted their public transportation networks to zero-fare. The city of Hasselt in Belgium is a notable example: fares were abolished in 1997 and ridership was as much as "13 times higher" by 2006.[1]

See list below.

Local zero-fare shuttles or inner-city loops are far more common than citywide systems. They often use buses or trams. These may be set up by a city government to ease bottlenecks or fill short gaps in the transport network.

See List of free public transport routes for a list of zero-fare routes within wider (fare-paying) networks

Zero-fare transport is often operated as part of the services offered within a public facility, such as a hospital or university campus shuttle or an airport inter-terminal shuttle.

Some zero-fare services may be built to avoid the need for large transport construction. Port cities where shipping would require very high bridges might provide zero-fare ferries instead. These are free at the point of use, just as the use of a bridge might have been. Machinery installed within a building or shopping centre can be seen as 'zero-fare transport': elevators, escalators and moving sidewalks are often provided by property owners and funded through the sales of goods and services. Community bicycle programs, providing free bicycles for short-term public use could be thought of as zero-fare transport.

A common example of zero-fare transport is student transport, where students travelling to or from school do not need to pay. A notable example is the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, which provides much of the funding to operate the Stevens Point Transit system. All students at the university can use any of the four citywide campus routes and the other four bus routes throughout the city free of charge. The university also funds two late night bus routes to serve the downtown free of charge with a goal of cutting down drunk driving.

In some regions transport is free because the revenues are lower that expenses from fare collection is already partially paid by government or company or service (for example BMO railway road in Moscow, most part of is used to as service transport and officially pick up passengers).

Many large amusement parks will have trams servicing large parking lots or distant areas. Disneyland in Anaheim, California, runs a tram from its entrance, across the parking lot, and across the street to its hotel as well as the bus stop for Orange County and Los Angeles local transit buses. Six Flags Magic Mountain in Valencia, California, provides tram service throughout its parking lot.

Dubai in the UAE, has just announced it will offer free bus services for a short period of time and it will only be on some days [2]

Transport operators can benefit from faster boarding and shorter dwell times, allowing faster timetabling of services. Although some of these benefits can be achieved in other ways, such as off-vehicle ticket sales and modern types of electronic fare collection, zero-fare transport avoids equipment and personnel costs.

Passenger aggression may be reduced. In 2008 bus drivers of Société des Transports Automobiles (STA) in Essonne held strikes demanding zero-fare transport for this reason. They claim that 90% of the aggression is related to refusal to pay the fare.[3]

Some zero-fare transport services are funded by private businesses (such as the merchants in a shopping mall) in the hope that doing so will increase sales or other revenue from increased foot traffic or ease of travel. Employers often operate free shuttles as a benefit to their employees, or as part of a congestion mitigation agreement with a local government.

Zero-fare transport can make the system more accessible and fair for low-income residents. Other benefits are the same as those attributed to public transport generally:

Global benefits of zero-fare transport are also the same as those attributed to public transport generally. If use of personal cars is discouraged, zero-fare public transport could mitigate the problems of global warming and oil depletion.

Several large U.S. municipalities have attempted zero-fare systems, but many of these implementations have been judged unsuccessful by policy-makers. A 2002 National Center for Transportation Research report suggests that, while transit ridership does tend to increase, there are also some disadvantages:[4]

This U.S. report suggests that, while ridership does increase overall, the goal of enticing drivers to take transit instead of driving is not necessarily met: because fare-free systems tend to attract a certain number of "problem riders", zero-fare systems may have the unintended effect of convincing some 'premium' riders to go back to driving their cars. It should be kept in mind that this was a study that only looked at U.S. cities, and the author's conclusions may be less applicable in other countries that have better social safety nets and less crime than the large U.S. cities studied.[4]

For local and/or limited services, see List of free public transport routes

Free public transport creates the perception of a no-cost service, just as car drivers commonly perceive no cost to deciding to take their car somewhere. The catch of the car-based system is that the car trip is not in fact free, but it is generally perceived as such.

Likewise, this perception of freeness is important for public transport, which is far more environmentally and resource efficient than own-car travel – which means in this case that full access to the system need not be altogether “free” for its users but that from a financial perspective it becomes (a) front-loaded and (b) affordable. The invariable fact of life of delivering any public service is that the money to do so must come from somewhere – and of “free” public transport that once the user has entered into some kind of “contract” with her or his city – for example a monthly or annual transit pass that opens up the public system to unlimited use for those who pay for it. Now, how they pay and how much will be part of the overall political/economic package (“contract”) of their community. In cities that offer such passes – as is the case to take but one example in most cities in France that since the mid-seventies have had their own Carte Orange – the remainder of the funds needed to pay for these services comes from other sources (mainly in this case from employers, local government).

Social-justice advocacy groups, such as the Swedish network Planka.nu, see zero-fare public transport as an effort in the redistribution of wealth.[40] It is also argued that transportation to and from work is a necessary part of the work day, and is essential to the employer in the managing of work hours. It is thus argued that financing of public transportation should fall to employers rather than private citizens.[41]

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Airport Transfers Usa Kempton park

For safety and for environmental considerations Airport Transfers Usa in Kempton park, most airports are built far away from cities and other residential areas. This poses an issue of traveling to and from the airport. People need transportation to the airfield when they are flying out and need to reach the airfield in time to catch their flight. Likewise, Cab To The Airport after landing at the airfield from a flight, transport from the airfield to the city is required. Both the issues are solved with private operators operating lax airfield car services.Transportation utilities provide luxury car services to and from the airport.

Airport Transportation Service Costs

These are mainly chauffeur driven cars, for which travelers may book reservations online. This facility comes as a great advantage to the commuter. With an online reservation system, the traveler is confident that he will be picked up from his hotel, office or home by a cab and taken to the airport right on-time to catch his flight, the service being guaranteed.Most transportation utilities track national and international flights. Therefore, the commuter may rest assured that the transportation from the aerodrome will be available and waiting for him, even if the flight arrives late into the night.

Airport Shuttle Service Price

The traveler no longer has to depend on rented cars and driving them through rush-hour traffic. After the long journey by flight, Call Airport Taxi he could take the luxurious, relaxing ride to his hotel, home or office.They have professional chauffeurs who have been trained to accommodate customer needs. They possess the required expertise and knowledge to conduct the traveler to and from the destination. They know the city roads like the back of their hands and can help the traveler reach his destination on time, even if the normal city roads are choked with traffic.

Free public transport

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Airport car service providers value the relationship with their customers and strive to maintain the required professionalism that is expected from such executive luxury service. These smart luxury car services are hard to forget once their utility has been realized.

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Private Airport Transfers Cost First London & London General AEC Routemasters on The Strand

The privatisation of London bus services was the process of the transfer of operation of London Buses from public bodies to private companies.

For half a century, operation of London bus services for public transport was under the direct control of a number of entities known as London Transport. The London Regional Transport Act 1984 resulted in London Regional Transport taking control of London's bus routes, with the operation divested in stand alone companies that were privatised in 1994/95.

Since then, direct provision of bus services in London has been run by private companies, although Transport for London did operate its own company, East Thames Buses between 1999 and 2009.

Unlike those in the rest of the United Kingdom, the bus services in London, although still ultimately privatised, were not deregulated to the same extent. In London, details of routes, fares and services levels were still specified by public bodies, with the right to run the services contracted to private companies on a tendered basis.

The privatised period produced for the first time buses in London painted in different schemes from the traditional red. This ceased following a 1997 edict that London buses be 80% red.

London Buses MCW Metrobus at Piccadilly Circus in October 1987

On 29 June 1984, in the general move towards deregulation, responsibility for running London bus services transferred from the last public body running London's buses, the Greater London Council to London Regional Transport under the London Regional Transport Act 1984. This Act required arm's-length subsidiaries to be established to oversee operation of bus services, and on 29 March 1985 London Buses Limited[1] was incorporated.[2]

Initially, bus livery continued to be all-over red with a simple solid white roundel, but in 1987 this livery was revised with the addition of a grey skirt and a white mid-level relief line; in the same year a modified red and yellow roundel, with the name 'London Buses' in capitals, was introduced.[3]

Grey-Green Alexander bodied Volvo Citybus as used on route 24

Under the 1984 Act, London bus services were to be tendered. The first round of tendering took place in the summer of 1985, bringing the first private operator into the market, in the form of London Buslines on route 81. By 1988 Boro'line Maidstone, Grey-Green and Metrobus were also operating numerous London routes.[4]

Controversially, these operators were allowed to operate buses in liveries other than standard red, meaning that for the first time it was possible for non-red buses to run into the centre of London, such as those on high-profile route 24 operated by Grey-Green. The only requirement was to display the London Transport roundel on the bus, to designate a London Transport tendered service. Ironically, several of the new private entrants were descendants of London Transport's former 'green' buses division, which operated outer London services that were passed to the National Bus Company's control as London Country Bus Services, in 1969.

The private competition was not without controversy, with objections to non-red buses leading to an edict in 1997 specifying 80% red liveries. The tendering also caused problems with several operators needing to hire buses due to late delivery of new buses for newly won routes.

One such controversial route was the arrangements for tendering route 60 which was initially awarded to Capital Logistics. Difficulties in setting up the route eventually saw operation by eight different operators and 10 different bus types in a short space of time, before the route finally gained a stable arrangement. [5]

The collapse of Harris Bus in December 1999, led to London Transport forming East Thames Buses as an arm's-length company to provide temporary operation of the routes. It was retained by the new Transport for London authority, to tender for routes itself until sold in October 2009 to the Go-Ahead Group.[6][7]

London Forest AEC Routemaster in 1991 London Northern Leyland Titan in 1992 CentreWest Challenger Alexander bodied Mercedes-Benz

On 1 April 1989 London Buses was divided into 12 business units, in preparation for sell-off. The companies were created along geographic lines, with all but Westlink having routes running into Central London. The division names and a small graphic device were added to the buses, in white. An exception to this was the Westlink unit, which received a new livery altogether. Some of the names chosen were drawn from the pre London Transport era, namely London General Omnibus Company and London United Tramways.

The separate business units created were:

Unlike the other units, Centrewest quickly branded its buses into separate groups, in the main removing the London Buses roundel in favour of various gold designs, with just the central services remaining in a slightly altered roundel based scheme. The group brands were: Challenger, Ealing Buses, Gold Arrow, Uxbridge Buses, Hillingdon local service and Orpington Buses.

Preserved Bexleybus Leyland Titan

During this time of separate business unit operation by London Buses, many new bus types were also being introduced, notably the Dennis Dart midibus as well as numerous minibuses. Several of these new vehicles received specialist branding from normal unit liveries, such as:

In the new era of private tendering, in an effort to compete with the new private operators entering the market, London Buses set up some low cost units to compete for tenders, painted in non-red liveries. The most notable were Harrow Buses[21] and Bexleybus, tendering for routes in the Harrow and Bexleyheath areas respectively.

These units were not overly successful, due to unreliable service, and industrial disputes due to lower pay rates than for the main London units. Their routes were quickly surrendered to other units or private operators.

Between September 1994 and January 1995, the separate London Buses business units were sold off. Competition rules restricted the number of units that could be bought by one group. All the units were sold either to their management or employees, or to one of the emerging national bus groups that had been growing through acquisition of deregulated companies in the rest of the UK. The exception was London Northern, which was bought by MTL, itself an expanding company formed from the privatisation of the Merseyside Passenger Transport Executive bus company.

Following sell-off, the new operators introduced new liveries, logos and trading names to many of the business units. Initially some buses appeared in liveries other than red, but an edict that all buses be 80% red saw this reversed from 1997. Some companies having been renamed, have since resumed their original identities.

The only unit not to be sold off was London Forest, which was wound up in the autumn of 1991 following poor financial performance and industrial action; its operating area was subsequently taken up by East London and Leaside Buses, although 11 of its routes in the Walthamstow area passed to private operators Capital Citybus, Thamesway Buses and County Bus.

The sell-off of the units proceeded as follows:

Capital Citybus Northern Counties bodied Leyland Olympian at Chingford station in June 1999 Centra Alexander Royale bodied Volvo Olympian Kentish Bus AEC Routemaster in July 1993 London & Country Leyland Lynx in Purley in May 1993 London Traveller East Lancs Spryte bodied Volvo B6BLE in August 1999 Preserved Metrobus Leyland Olympian

In the period before the sell off of the main business units, London saw operation by several private companies who gained tenders for routes. Many of these either ceased trading, or were ultimately purchased by large groups, some of which also bought some of the ex-London Buses units. Below is a list of private operators, some of which still operate.

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Affordable Transportation To Airport First London & London General AEC Routemasters on The Strand

The privatisation of London bus services was the process of the transfer of operation of London Buses from public bodies to private companies.

For half a century, operation of London bus services for public transport was under the direct control of a number of entities known as London Transport. The London Regional Transport Act 1984 resulted in London Regional Transport taking control of London's bus routes, with the operation divested in stand alone companies that were privatised in 1994/95.

Since then, direct provision of bus services in London has been run by private companies, although Transport for London did operate its own company, East Thames Buses between 1999 and 2009.

Unlike those in the rest of the United Kingdom, the bus services in London, although still ultimately privatised, were not deregulated to the same extent. In London, details of routes, fares and services levels were still specified by public bodies, with the right to run the services contracted to private companies on a tendered basis.

The privatised period produced for the first time buses in London painted in different schemes from the traditional red. This ceased following a 1997 edict that London buses be 80% red.

London Buses MCW Metrobus at Piccadilly Circus in October 1987

On 29 June 1984, in the general move towards deregulation, responsibility for running London bus services transferred from the last public body running London's buses, the Greater London Council to London Regional Transport under the London Regional Transport Act 1984. This Act required arm's-length subsidiaries to be established to oversee operation of bus services, and on 29 March 1985 London Buses Limited[1] was incorporated.[2]

Initially, bus livery continued to be all-over red with a simple solid white roundel, but in 1987 this livery was revised with the addition of a grey skirt and a white mid-level relief line; in the same year a modified red and yellow roundel, with the name 'London Buses' in capitals, was introduced.[3]

Grey-Green Alexander bodied Volvo Citybus as used on route 24

Under the 1984 Act, London bus services were to be tendered. The first round of tendering took place in the summer of 1985, bringing the first private operator into the market, in the form of London Buslines on route 81. By 1988 Boro'line Maidstone, Grey-Green and Metrobus were also operating numerous London routes.[4]

Controversially, these operators were allowed to operate buses in liveries other than standard red, meaning that for the first time it was possible for non-red buses to run into the centre of London, such as those on high-profile route 24 operated by Grey-Green. The only requirement was to display the London Transport roundel on the bus, to designate a London Transport tendered service. Ironically, several of the new private entrants were descendants of London Transport's former 'green' buses division, which operated outer London services that were passed to the National Bus Company's control as London Country Bus Services, in 1969.

The private competition was not without controversy, with objections to non-red buses leading to an edict in 1997 specifying 80% red liveries. The tendering also caused problems with several operators needing to hire buses due to late delivery of new buses for newly won routes.

One such controversial route was the arrangements for tendering route 60 which was initially awarded to Capital Logistics. Difficulties in setting up the route eventually saw operation by eight different operators and 10 different bus types in a short space of time, before the route finally gained a stable arrangement. [5]

The collapse of Harris Bus in December 1999, led to London Transport forming East Thames Buses as an arm's-length company to provide temporary operation of the routes. It was retained by the new Transport for London authority, to tender for routes itself until sold in October 2009 to the Go-Ahead Group.[6][7]

London Forest AEC Routemaster in 1991 London Northern Leyland Titan in 1992 CentreWest Challenger Alexander bodied Mercedes-Benz

On 1 April 1989 London Buses was divided into 12 business units, in preparation for sell-off. The companies were created along geographic lines, with all but Westlink having routes running into Central London. The division names and a small graphic device were added to the buses, in white. An exception to this was the Westlink unit, which received a new livery altogether. Some of the names chosen were drawn from the pre London Transport era, namely London General Omnibus Company and London United Tramways.

The separate business units created were:

Unlike the other units, Centrewest quickly branded its buses into separate groups, in the main removing the London Buses roundel in favour of various gold designs, with just the central services remaining in a slightly altered roundel based scheme. The group brands were: Challenger, Ealing Buses, Gold Arrow, Uxbridge Buses, Hillingdon local service and Orpington Buses.

Preserved Bexleybus Leyland Titan

During this time of separate business unit operation by London Buses, many new bus types were also being introduced, notably the Dennis Dart midibus as well as numerous minibuses. Several of these new vehicles received specialist branding from normal unit liveries, such as:

In the new era of private tendering, in an effort to compete with the new private operators entering the market, London Buses set up some low cost units to compete for tenders, painted in non-red liveries. The most notable were Harrow Buses[21] and Bexleybus, tendering for routes in the Harrow and Bexleyheath areas respectively.

These units were not overly successful, due to unreliable service, and industrial disputes due to lower pay rates than for the main London units. Their routes were quickly surrendered to other units or private operators.

Between September 1994 and January 1995, the separate London Buses business units were sold off. Competition rules restricted the number of units that could be bought by one group. All the units were sold either to their management or employees, or to one of the emerging national bus groups that had been growing through acquisition of deregulated companies in the rest of the UK. The exception was London Northern, which was bought by MTL, itself an expanding company formed from the privatisation of the Merseyside Passenger Transport Executive bus company.

Following sell-off, the new operators introduced new liveries, logos and trading names to many of the business units. Initially some buses appeared in liveries other than red, but an edict that all buses be 80% red saw this reversed from 1997. Some companies having been renamed, have since resumed their original identities.

The only unit not to be sold off was London Forest, which was wound up in the autumn of 1991 following poor financial performance and industrial action; its operating area was subsequently taken up by East London and Leaside Buses, although 11 of its routes in the Walthamstow area passed to private operators Capital Citybus, Thamesway Buses and County Bus.

The sell-off of the units proceeded as follows:

Capital Citybus Northern Counties bodied Leyland Olympian at Chingford station in June 1999 Centra Alexander Royale bodied Volvo Olympian Kentish Bus AEC Routemaster in July 1993 London & Country Leyland Lynx in Purley in May 1993 London Traveller East Lancs Spryte bodied Volvo B6BLE in August 1999 Preserved Metrobus Leyland Olympian

In the period before the sell off of the main business units, London saw operation by several private companies who gained tenders for routes. Many of these either ceased trading, or were ultimately purchased by large groups, some of which also bought some of the ex-London Buses units. Below is a list of private operators, some of which still operate.

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Gloviz Have Airport Transfer List

Transfer From The Airport Duxberry

For safety and for environmental considerations Transfer From The Airport in Duxberry, most airports are built far away from cities and other residential areas. This poses an issue of traveling to and from the airport. People need transportation to the airfield when they are flying out and need to reach the airfield in time to catch their flight. Likewise, Best Airport Shuttle Service after landing at the airfield from a flight, transport from the airfield to the city is required. Both the issues are solved with private operators operating lax airfield car services.Transportation utilities provide luxury car services to and from the airport.

Private Airport Transfers Costs

These are mainly chauffeur driven cars, for which travelers may book reservations online. This facility comes as a great advantage to the commuter. With an online reservation system, the traveler is confident that he will be picked up from his hotel, office or home by a cab and taken to the airport right on-time to catch his flight, the service being guaranteed.Most transportation utilities track national and international flights. Therefore, the commuter may rest assured that the transportation from the aerodrome will be available and waiting for him, even if the flight arrives late into the night.

Taxi Service To Airport Price

The traveler no longer has to depend on rented cars and driving them through rush-hour traffic. After the long journey by flight, Airport Transfers Orlando he could take the luxurious, relaxing ride to his hotel, home or office.They have professional chauffeurs who have been trained to accommodate customer needs. They possess the required expertise and knowledge to conduct the traveler to and from the destination. They know the city roads like the back of their hands and can help the traveler reach his destination on time, even if the normal city roads are choked with traffic.

Shuttle-UM

Taxi Service To Airport Price

Airport car service providers value the relationship with their customers and strive to maintain the required professionalism that is expected from such executive luxury service. These smart luxury car services are hard to forget once their utility has been realized.

Transfer From The Airport in Duxberry ?

Airport Car Service Cost   (Redirected from Hillsbus)

ComfortDelGro Australia (CDC) is a major Australian operator of commuter buses. It is the second-largest commuter bus operator in New South Wales, and the third-largest commuter bus operator in Victoria. The company was founded in October 2005 as ComfortDelGro Cabcharge, a joint venture between Singapore-based ComfortDelGro (51%) and Australian-based Cabcharge (49%). In February 2017, Cabcharge sold its stake to ComfortDelGro.

CDC operates services as part of the New South Wales metropolitan bus system under the Hillsbus, Hunter Valley Buses and Blue Mountains Transit brands. In regional New South Wales (Queanbeyan and Yass), CDC operates under the Qcity Transit and Transborder Express brands. In Victoria, CDC operates CDC Ballarat, CDC Geelong and CDC Melbourne.

CDC also has operations outside Australia. In the United Kingdom, CDC owns and operates as CityFleet which operates coach services in London under the Westbus banner and taxi services in a number of cities.

Former ComfortDelGro Cabcharge logo

The joint venture was established in October 2005 to purchase loss-making Westbus (Australia & UK), Hillsbus and Hunter Valley Buses from National Express and the Bosnjak family.[1] The company traces its origins to 1955, when the Bosnjak family established a bus company in Edensor Park.

In 1986, Westbus commenced operating in England with the purchase of ADP Travel Services, Hounslow and Swinards Coaches, Ashford.[2][3] This was later acquired by Armchair Passenger Transport who were in turn purchased in 2004 by ComfortDelGro.[4]

In August 2006 the routes of Baxter's Bus Lines were purchased by and absorbed into Westbus operations.[5][6]

Morisset Bus Service, Sugar Valley Coachlines and Toronto Bus Service were purchased in August 2007 and absorbed into Hunter Valley Buses.[7] In June 2008 a bus charter division was established under the Charter Plus name.

Kefford Corporation in Victoria was purchased in November 2008.[8] The group was renamed CDC Victoria, but the names of the bus companies within the group were retained. The CDC brand was rolled out in 2014.

In September 2012 Deane's Transit Group comprising Deane's Buslines (renamed as Qcity Transit) and Transborder Express in southern New South Wales were purchased.[9][10] In August 2014, CDC purchased Blue Mountains Bus Company, which was subsequently renamed Blue Mountains Transit in December 2014.[11]

In December 2016 ComfortDelgro announced it had agreed to purchase Cabcharge's 49% stake.[12][13] The sale was completed on 16 February 2017 after Foreign Investment Review Board approval was granted.[14]

Westbus was established in 1955 by the Bosnjak family. Trading as Bosnjak's Bus Service, it operated a fleet of five buses on a route connecting the Sydney suburbs of Canley Vale and Edensor Park.

Bosnjak's purchased a number of bus companies:[15]

All companies began to trade as Westbus in October 1984.[20]

In 1985 the coach business of Rowe's was purchased. A fleet of Volvo B10M coaches were purchased and based at Northmead. Following the purchase of Calabro's in June 1989 both fleets moved to Alexandria and later Arncliffe. The operation ceased in the early 2000s.

In May 1999, British coach operator National Express took a 57% shareholding in Westbus as part of its purchase of National Bus Company.[21] Members of the founding Bosnjak family continued to hold the remaining shares.

In December 2004, Westbus' Northmead and Seven Hills operations were merged with those of the newly acquired Glenorie Bus Company under the Hillsbus brand.

With debts of $90 million and National Express unwilling to provide further funding, in January 2005 the company was placed into voluntary administration. Westbus's problems threatened a major disruption to Sydney's transport network: the company ranked second only to government-owned Sydney Buses in the commuter bus industry. The company was acquired by ComfortDelGro Cabcharge in October 2005. The new owners pledged to honour the company's contractual obligations to customers and staff.[22] The change of ownership saw the company exchange one politically well-connected shareholder, the Bosnjak family,[23] for another, Cabcharge's Reg Kermode.

In August 2006 the routes of Baxter's Bus Lines were purchased by and absorbed into Westbus Region 3 operations.[5][6] Also included in the sale were Baxter's Girraween depot and some of its bus fleet.

From 2005 Westbus' services were part of Sydney Bus Regions 1 and 3.[24][25] In 2012, these regions were put out to tender by Transport for New South Wales. Westbus' bids to retain both regions were not successful, with the Region 1 services operating out of St Marys and Windsor passing to Busways, while the Region 3 services operated by Bonnyrigg and Girraween passing to Transit Systems Sydney, both in October 2013.[26][27][28]

Westbus operated services (as of 2013) in the following areas:

Westbus operated these services prior to their rebranding to Hillsbus in December 2004:

A long time Bedford and Leyland buyer, after briefly manufacturing its own Bosnjak JBJ chassis in the late 1970s, Westbus moved to the Volvo B10M purchasing over 160 as buses and 12 as coaches in the 1980s.[18] It later purchased Mercedes-Benz O405 and Scanias.

As at May 2013 Westbus operated 289 buses across four depots in Bonnyrigg and Girraween for Region 3 and St Marys and Windsor for Region 1.[5] Upon formation in 1983 Westbus adopted a cream and red livery, which was adopted by National Bus Company in 1993. This was simplified in the early 2000s to plain yellow. In 2010 the Transport for New South Wales white and blue livery began to be applied in line with contractual obligations.

Hillsbus Custom Coaches bodied Mercedes-Benz O405 Mk II on Clarence Street, Sydney CBD painted in Westbus cream & red in October 2007 Hillsbus Volgren bodied Scania K230UB at Castle Hill bus interchange in July 2013 Bustech CDI double-decker in Transport for New South Wales livery at Castle Hill interchange Metrobus liveried Hillsbus Volgren CR228L bodied Volvo B7RLE at Castle Hill bus interchange in July 2013

In 1996 Westbus established a separate Hillsbus brand to run express services from the Hills District to the Sydney CBD and North Sydney, initially via the Anzac Bridge and from 1997 via the M2 Hills Motorway.[29] However the Hillsbus brand seemed to have disappeared by the 2000s as these services were classified as Westbus rather than Hillsbus in early versions of the Westbus website.[30] These Westbus services, however, are still referred to by Westbus as "Hills City Express".[31]

On 11 February 2002, Hillsbus was recreated as a joint venture between Westbus and National Express' newly acquired Glenorie Bus Company, and introduced a new bus route 642 under the Hillsbus brand.[32] This service linked Dural and the City via the M2 and was therefore known as a "M2 City" express service. On 8 July the same year, Hillsbus introduced three more M2 City routes 650, 652 and 654.[33][34] According to the Hillsbus timetables, these Hillsbus services were operated by Glenorie,[35] even though neither Westbus nor Glenorie buses were used.[33][36]

In December 2004, all Westbus routes operating out of Northmead and Seven Hills depots, as well as the rest of Glenorie Bus Company, were rebranded Hillsbus.[37] At the same time, Hillsbus took over the operation of Harris Park Transport routes 620 - 630, following the latter ceasing operation. The services were transferred from Hillsbus to Sydney Buses on 28 January 2005.[38] On 25 September 2005, after the purchase of Hillsbus by ComfortDelgro Cabcharge, routes 620, 625, 626, 627 and 630 were transferred back to Hillsbus.[39]

Despite the rebranding to Hillsbus, the new Hillsbus website was only launched in January 2006, about a year after the rebranding.[40] The delay could be related to the debt of Westbus and was only resolved after the sale of Westbus and Hillsbus to CDC. After the launch of the new website, it still did not show any timetables of the former Glenorie-operated timetables until May/June 2006, and during this period, customers were asked to check the Glenorie website instead.[41]

When the Parramatta - Rouse Hill section of the North-West T-way opened on 10 March 2007, routes 730 (renumbered T63) and 735 (renumbered 616, now 616X) were transferred from Busways to Hillsbus with route 718 transferred from Hillsbus to Busways.[42]

Since 2005 Hillsbus' services have formed Sydney Bus Region 4.[43] In August 2013 Hillsbus successfully tendered to operate the Region 4 services for another five years from August 2014.[44][45]

On 30 June 2014, the Opal card was rolled out on all of Hillsbus' NightRide and Region 4 routes (including school services).[46][47]

Hillsbus operates the following services:

As at November 2014, Hillsbus operated 549 buses across four depots Seven Hills, Foundry Road (Seven Hills), Dural and Northmead.[5] Upon formation Hillsbus adopted Westbus' cream and red livery. This was simplified in the early 2000s to plain yellow. In 2010 the Transport for New South Wales white and blue livery began to be applied.

Hunter Valley Buses provides commuter bus, school bus, coach and charter services in the Hunter Region of New South Wales.

The group's origins can be traced back to 1926 when Amos Fogg founded the operation. Having taken control of Hunter Valley Coaches, Maitland and purchased Linsley Brothers, Wallsend along with their Raymond Terrace routes, all were rebranded as Blue Ribbon. In October 1989 Fellowes Bus Service, Swansea was purchased followed by Singleton Bus Service in March 1992.[18][48]

In December 1993, most of the coach operations were sold to Sid Fogg's in exchange for some route services.[49] In 1999 the Maitland, Wallsend and Raymond Terrace depots were consolidated at a new site in Thornton. In February 2000 Blue Ribbon was sold to National Bus Company with 162 buses and coaches.[50] In October 2005 Blue Ribbon was purchased by ComfortDelGro Cabcharge and rebranded as Hunter Valley Buses.

In August 2007, Morisset Bus Service, Sugar Valley Coachlines and Toronto Bus Service were purchased from Robert Hertogs and consolidated into the Hunter Valley Buses operation.[7]

Since 2008, Hunter Valley Buses' services have formed Sydney Outer Metropolitan Bus Regions 2 and 4.[51]

As at November 2014, Hunter Valley Buses operated 297 buses and coaches across five depots.[5] Upon formation Blue Ribbon adopted a livery of two blues for its route service buses and coaches and white and blue for school buses. Upon being rebranded as Hunter Valley Buses the same allover yellow scheme as used by Hillsbus and Westbus was adopted. In 2010 the Transport for New South Wales white and blue livery began to be applied.

Charterplus is CDC's bus charter division for its Sydney operations. Initially established to centralise the charter operations between the Hillsbus depots, this was expanded to the Westbus depots in 2009. It organises charters for the CDC group, CDC rail bus workings, as well as CDC's special event commitments. Originally based at Bonnyrigg, all Charterplus vehicles are now based at the St Marys depot.

As at November 2014, Charterplus operated 37 buses transferred from both the New South Wales and Victorian operations.[5]

In August 2014, CDC purchased Blue Mountains Bus Company with 101 buses.[11][52] It operates depots in Emu Plains, Leura and Valley Heights.[53] Founded in 1951 as Pearce Omnibus, it operated services in the lower Blue Mountains. In 1999, it expanded with the purchase of Katoomba-Leura Bus Service, followed in 2002 by Blue Mountains Bus Co. On 1 December 2014, CDC formally took over the operations of Blue Mountains Bus Company and rebranded it as Blue Mountains Transit.

Westrans Volgren bodied Volvo B7L at Sunshine station in December 2013

In November 2008, ComfortDelGro Cabcharge purchased Victorian bus operator Kefford Corporation[8] with its fleet of 328 buses and six depots. Kefford was the fourth largest bus operator in Victoria, with a market share of 16%. The fleets retain their individual identities and liveries with small CDC Victoria markings. In July 2013 the route operations of the Driver Group were purchased and integrated into the Eastrans brand.[54][55][56]

On 14 July 2014, CDC Victoria launched a new website for its four Victorian subsidiaries: Westrans, Eastrans, Benders Busways and Davis Bus Lines. Benders Busways was renamed as CDC Geelong and Davis Bus Lines to CDC Ballarat.[57] Soon after, Westrans and Eastrans were rebranded as CDC Melbourne.

CDC's Victorian subsidiaries are:

As at October 2014, CDC Victoria had six depots and operated 446 buses.[58]

Deane's Buslines P&D Coachworks bodied Volvo B7RLE in Canberra in November 2009

In September 2012, CDC purchased Deane's Transit Group which comprised Deane's Buslines which operates local services in Queanbeyan and into Canberra, and Transborder Express which runs services between Yass, Murrumbateman, Hall and Canberra. Both brands also operate school services within their service region. On 8 July 2013, Deane's Buslines was rebranded as Qcity Transit.

As at November 2014, the combined Qcity Transit and Transborder Express fleet consisted of 104 buses.[59]

In the United Kingdom, CityFleet is the umbrella company for CDC's operations in the United Kingdom.[60][61]

CityFleet operates:

In 1986, Westbus commenced operating in England with the purchase of ADP Travel Services, Hounslow and Swinards Coaches, Ashford by the Bosnjak family.[2][3] However, the Westbus UK company operates independently from the Westbus in Australia, despite bearing the latter's name, old logo and livery. It was sold to Armchair Passenger Transport, being reacquired when the latter was purchased by ComfortDelGro in November 2004 and absorbed into Westbus UK operations in November 2006.[3][62][63]

CityFleet operates taxi account, booking and dispatch services in Aberdeen, Birmingham, Edinburgh, Liverpool and London, under the names of ComCab or Comfort Executive.[63][64]

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If you are looking to arrive or depart the airport in the ultimate style and comfort, there is no better way to travel than in a limousine. Whether you are traveling for business, pleasure, hosting a special guest, hosting a corporate event, or celebrating any event, renting a limousine can provide the best airport transportation experience.Many limousine services provide prompt, reliable, and courteous airport service, with a professional chauffeur. With a professional limousines service, your uniformed chauffeur will arrive on time and be well groomed and courteous. He or she will drive safely, know how to get to your destination, open doors, and assist with luggage, providing a great experience.Renting a limo for your airport transportation might cost less than you think. It is the best way to arrive or depart from the airport. There will be no need to worry about traffic, being late, getting gasoline, parking, parking fees, having to wait for transportation or loading and unloading your luggage. Renting a limousine can also greatly reduce your stress and allow you to feel relaxed and refreshed.

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Airport Travel: Self Transportation Versus Taxi, Car, or Airport Shuttle Services or Airport Transfer?

For many people Airport Transfer  in Bryanston, employing an airport car service–be it a taxi, town car, or even shuttle–seems like a foreign concept. Many of us are used to either taking care of our own travel needs or calling on friends to drop us off or pick us up. While these two options are certainly wonderful, they don’t work in every situation. They also may not be the best way to start or end your journey in terms of making the best use of your time, and keeping your stress level to a minimum.

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Even if you decide to stick with the DIY travel style, you should know that there are affordable and efficient airport travel alternatives available to you should you choose to employ them. As anyone who has ever been to an airport knows, taxis are a frequently used mode of transportation for either leaving or arriving at the airport. If you are traveling to the airport, making an appointment with a taxi service for pickup from your home can be a huge help. When you make a reservation for a taxi, they will be able to calculate how much time to allow for travel from your address, and may often even offer a flat fee rate for airport travel.

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If you (or someone you’re making a reservation for, such as a boss or a client) prefer to travel in a bit more style, you can also look into a car service as a transportation option. This gives you the same benefits of a taxi, but with more class and individual attention.If you are able to coordinate your own airport travel without difficulty, or if you simply feel more comfortable handling it on your own, there’s no reason not to. If, on the other hand, employing a taxi, town car, or shuttle to assist you in getting to or from the airport would simplify your travel and make it less stressful, you may want to consider employing such a service to help you with your travel needs.

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Cheap Private Transportation Services

Shuttle-UM is a transit system for the University of Maryland, College Park (UMD), which constitutes the UM acronym of the company, that operates as a unit of the university's Department of Transportation Services. The system is student-run and is supported by student fees and the university's Student Affairs department.[2] Its fleet consists of over 60 vehicles and transports approximately three million rides a year.[2] The system provides four different services: commuter, evening, charter, and demand response.[3] The latter consists of a paratransit service and a call response curb-to-curb service during the evening, while the former consists of a bus service that runs for 24 hours, seven days a week. Implied by its name, the bus service routes "shuttle" passengers to and from the university with over 20 different routes. Paid upon admission by students to the university, the services are complimentary and only certain services require university identification badges. In 2012, the company expanded to provide service to the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB) campus under the name, UM Shuttle. Additionally, a new facility was built to house Shuttle-UM's operations and fleet within the campus after over 30 years of being housed off campus.

Shuttle-UM was established in November 1972 by the University of Maryland, College Park's (UMD) Black Student Union as an initiative to promote security for students walking through campus during the evening hours. Operations began with the use of two vans to circulate campus, which were purchased by UMD's Student Government Association (SGA), the campus' student governing body, through approval by the Office of Commuter Student Affairs, a campus organization supporting students commuters. The operations were run in the basement of a residence hall on campus and consisted of running the vans on two fixed routes. By Spring 1973, the Residence Hall Association, the governing body for the campus' dormitory halls, donated an additional van which led to three fixed routes running through campus in the evening.[4] By the end of the system's first year of service, 65,000 had been transported.[4] The following year saw the addition of daytime routes to operations to parking lots and the establishment of Call-A-Ride, which was the original first curb-to-curb service for the transit system.[4] In 1975, four Mercedes Benz vans were purchased to expand the fleet to six vehicles. This same year, the name Shuttle-UM was established, three years after being a service provided by SGA, Shuttle-UM was now an independent entity for UMD.[4] Upon the transit system's independence, Charter service was added to its operations in 1975; the following year saw expansion to the curb-to-curb service with Disability Transit Service" for handicap persons; off-campus routes were established in 1976.

During the fall of 1978, Shuttle-UM's first facility was built on an off-campus parking lot on Greenhouse Road adjacent to Baltimore Avenue.[5] The new facility, known as UMD Building 013, featured a 12,000 gallon underground diesel tank, numerous maintenance bays, and a bus wash bay. Upon 1979, the project that started as a security service expanded to a transit system consisting of 10 routes with over 20 vehicles.[6] Barri Standish was hired as the first non-student full-time staff member to serve as the General Manager for Shuttle-UM to provide student guidance in transit operations.[4] Through 1985 and 1988, the Greenhouse facility was expanded to allocate growing operations with administrative offices and maintenance bays.[5] Shuttle-UM's expansion in 1985 also composed of ridership growing to 1.1 million passengers annually and employing 125 student employees that took the positions of "drivers, dispatchers, maintenance assistance, trainers, and managers."[6] By 1986, Shuttle-UM became a member of the American Public Transportation Association and the Transit Association of Maryland.[4] Within 1999 and 2001, the facility's maintenance bays were expanded to accommodate the growing fleet caused by the growing ridership; the administrative offices also underwent a further expansion in 2001 to accommodate growing employment.[5]

For several years, the annual ridership remained above 2 million; however, during the 2011-12 academic year, DOTS started an initiative that would reward their three millionth rider with free books for a school year, which ultimately commenced in their first year with 3 million riders.[7] In 2012, the construction of a brand new facility was completed on Paint Branch Drive within campus adjacent to the XFINITY Center. This new facility fit into DOTS' mission and goal to be more sustainable.

A Shuttle-UM 35 ft. Gillig Low Floor bus

The facility included geo-thermal heating and cooling systems, a green roof, and an in-ground filtration system to separate run-off diesel and storm water in the fueling area. The new facility was able to house all administration that was expanded within the years at the Greenhouse facility and featured an above-ground diesel tank that stored 2,000 gallons more.[5]

Shuttle UM Gillig Advantage at Prince George's Plaza

Shuttle-UM saw its first expansion with the introduction of its UM Shuttle service for the University of Maryland, Baltimore campus which strictly serves the surrounding Baltimore areas near campus. President Jay Perman reached an agreement with UMD to answer requests of the UMB community to obtain a shuttle service within campus. In August 2012, UM Shuttle officially launched and began to transport staff, faculty, and other members of the UMB community with three distinct routes. The vehicles for these routes are operated in Baltimore but housed in the Paint Branch facility and driven by UMD employees. Like Shuttle-UM, university ID's grant access to riding the shuttles for UMB.[8]

Shuttle-UM and UM Shuttle are complimentary services via paid student fees and UMD's Student Affairs' funds.[9][10] Additionally, living complexes and businesses pay the organization to run the service in their area, which allow riders to ride by just showing drivers a university ID, not limited to University of Maryland System schools.[11] Residents of College Park were granted access to Shuttle-UM's services via a program approved by city council in 2010, which granted residents passes to show drivers.[12][13] In September 2012, the city of Greenbelt passed a similar program to that of College Park allowing passes for its residents to use Shuttle-UM's services.[14]

Shuttle-UM, although as separate entity in the beginning, is now a branch of DOTS, along with Campus Parking Enforcement. Both are housed at the Paint Branch facility; however, customer inquires regarding parking operate out of Regents Drive Garage offices. Located at Regents Drive Garage are the directors of DOTS, which is overseen by Senior Director David Allen: the directors delegate planning and oversee activity of every branch of the corporation. Every driving staff member for Shuttle-UM that holds a Commercial Driver's License (CDL) is assigned a unit number, which are uniquely grouped to identify different departments and status'. These unit numbers are used to eliminate the usage of full names while having radio contact and have an important role in operations for the company.[5]

The Shuttle-UM and Campus Parking Enforcement operations branches of DOTS are overseen by its Senior Associate Director, Armand Scala, who directly reports to Allen. The two chief executives are regarded as being at the top realm of company operations, who work directly with numerous full-time chief operatives. Under the executives are the full-time shift supervisors, who directly manage the full-time driving staff. Student managers have the responsibility of managing student driving staff, alongside being responsible for running several departments of the organization's operations, such as Dispatch and Demand Response.[5]

The drivers for Shuttle-UM are all required to have a CDL class B, with passenger and air-brakes endorsement. These requirements are to be met in order to operate the vehicles in Shuttle-UM's fleet. Although completely composed of student drivers upon the company's inception, as of 2013, staff now features non-student full-time and part-time drivers. The full-time driving staff have a set schedule package that they select before every academic semester (Fall, Winter, Spring, and Summer) for UMCP consisting of 40 hours. Students are required to be enrolled at UMCP or University of Maryland, University College (UMUC), the latter due to the sister school sharing the UMCP campus, in order to be eligible to go through CDL training with Shuttle-UM. Students are given the opportunity to obtain their CDL granted upon that they complete a semester's worth of driving, where upon they have the option of leaving or exploring different departments to work for. Like the full-timers, students select shifts before the Spring and Fall semesters only, which are their weekly permanent shifts. Unlike full-time staff, students have more flexibility in choosing individual shifts rather than packages.[15]

Maintenance is overseen by the Fleet Maintenance Manager, who operates through numerous full-time field managers. These on-site managers are in charge of coordinating service to all vehicles in the fleet for Shuttle-UM and Campus Parking Enforcement, which both make up DOTS. Service done to these vehicles include but are not limited to preventative maintenance, DOT inspections, and fixing mechanical problems. Maintenance operates out of multiple bays located in the Paint Branch facility, which facilitates their work due to the facility also housing parking for all vehicles.[16]

The training department consists of certified CDL full-time instructors that are responsible for coordinate training to drivers, students and full-timers, who which to seek employment with Shuttle-UM and obtaining a CDL license. Training consists of multiple sessions that gives drivers numerous hours of training through range and road exercises in order to prepare them for CDL exams administered at the Motor Vehicle Administration (MVA). Upon their CDL completion, training is also responsible for giving orientations of all Shuttle-UM commercial vehicles in order to give all drivers and equal opportunity in driving routes that require different vehicles.[17]

The dispatch department is responsible for transit operations in regards to all services provided by the company, including demand response and fixed routes. All dispatchers are students, who are trained to operate the technology and equipment necessary to ensure service is operative. The dispatchers report directly to the shift supervisors upon problems arising before executing decisions that will ensure service being completed. Dispatch also coordinates all customer service inquires regarding routes, demand response, charter, staff, and campus guests. The Shuttle-UM dispatch department operates in sync with the University of Maryland Police Department (UMPD), due to the organization being a state-governed agency: this connection with UMPD provides a branch of safety to drivers and to passengers upon distress signals and accident response. As a result, Shuttle-UM dispatch uses certain police 10-codes for daily operations. Aside from dealing with transit operations, the dispatchers are responsible for recording ridership tallies that are radio communicated to them by drivers upon the completion of every run of every route, which in turn gives the organization passenger data to work with in operations.[17]

A 40 ft. Flxible Metro bus in service at Regents Drive Parking Garage. This photo was taken before all of the remaining Flxibles retired in early 2013.

Beginning with simply two routes in 1972, the company has expanded its bus service by currently having 27 routes (23 that serve UMD, 3 that serve UMB, and 1 that serves BSU). Since its existence, the company has added and dropped several of its routes. These known documented instances are noted below. At the conclusion of the 2008-2009 academic year, Shuttle-UM ceased the operation of its 101 Route One Corridor service due to low ridership. This route once had the highest ridership of all routes in operation, but at the current time only averaged over 100 passengers a day. Certain stops that the community rallied to be served were added onto the 110 Seven Springs Apartments route to compensate.[18][19] At the conclusion of the 2007-2008 academic year, the 102 Campus Connector North and 103 Campus Connector South were discontinued in favor of the 125 Campus Circulator. The campus "connector" routes were the only routes that ran through campus before the start of the evening routes. For undisclosed reasons, the routes were merged into one route that saw the continuation of service through the same areas and regions of campus that were originally served.[20][21]

At the conclusion of the 2011-12 academic year, the city of Greenbelt saw a reduction in service by Shuttle-UM. The 101 Beltway Plaza served the Beltway Plaza shopping mall by providing students a shopping outlet on the weekends. The route was last served during 2011-2012 and quietly terminated at the start of 2012-13.[3][11]

A Shuttle-UM bus stop located on the UMD campus

Additionally, the 131 Mazza Grandmarc/Enclave Franklin Park no longer ran to the Franklin Park complex in Greenbelt after 2011-12.[3][11] The creation of the 130 Greenbelt and expanded service to the 129 Franklin Park at Greenbelt Station for the 2011-12 academic year saw the merger of the 106 Greenbelt North and 119 Greenbelt South routes, which last ran at the conclusion of 2010-11.[3][6] Additional routes that saw changes included the 123 M-Square which was cancelled between 2010–11 and 2012–13, which saw its services expanded onto the 109 River Road; the 108 Powder Mill Village received a name change and service change to 108 Adelphi by not serving the apartment complex any further.[3][6]

At the conclusion of 2011-12, the 113 University Town Center and 113 University Town Center (Saturday) lost ridership and lost its University Town Center Towers complex funding sponsor. As a result, the route was to be terminated. However, negotiations between student groups and DOTS resulted in the route being kept for one more year (2012–13) under the name 113 Hyattsville which extended the service to the Hyattsville residential neighborhoods.[22] The 2012-13 year saw the cancellation of the company's "park and ride" services: 101 Burtonsville Park and Ride, 107 Laurel Park and Ride, and 120 Bowie Park and Ride. As Shuttle-UM's first aim to promote sustainability by providing service to regions further than the surrounding campus, the routes servicing Burtonsville, Bowie, and Laurel saw a decline in ridership. Riders protested its cancellation; however, on October 12, the routes were serviced for the final time while DOTS provided alternatives for the riders in reaching campus. Additionally to the decline in riders, the 124 The Universities at Shady Grove route required more buses and funds to maintain, thus the park and rides fate was determined by a budget cut necessary to maintain the 124.[23]

With the expansion of Shuttle-UM into Baltimore at the UMB campus, three routes began to service the area in 2012-13 with 701 BioPark, 702 Mount Vernon, and 703 Federal Hill servicing the immediate UMB campus seven days a week.[24]

The Shuttle-UM transit system operates primarily at the University of Maryland, College Park (UMD) campus with satellite service at the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB) and University of Baltimore (UB). There are currently 31 routes (26 serviced at UMD, 3 serviced at UMB, and 2 serviced at UB) that operate for the University System of Maryland (USM). The UMD routes hub on campus at one of its two terminals: Adele H. Stamp Student Union and Regents Drive Parking Garage, with the exception of one route (see 109 River Road). The UMB routes hub on campus at the Pearl Street Garage. The UB routes hub at one of two terminals: State Center (on campus) and Penn Station (off campus). As the name of the organization implies, the transit system operates as a "shuttle" to and from campus.

There are 15 documented routes that have been cancelled, altered, or renamed.

Scheduled bus service is also available for academic semester breaks from Stamp Student Union to areas outside of Maryland.

Transportation to Metropark in New Jersey allows access to Amtrak and New Jersey Transit routes. Bus service to the Port Authority Bus Terminal provides indirect access to JFK, LaGuardia and other transit options in New York City.

Shuttle-UM also has seasonal routes to the Cherry Hill Mall in Cherry Hill, NJ and Philadelphia.

Shuttle-UM owns over 70 vehicles used to fulfill its service. They range from a variety of builders, models, length, and engine transmission. The company numbers its series according to the year the vehicle was registered to begin service. For example, vehicle 3813 is a 2013 Gillig Low Floor bus, but was not placed in service until 2013. Thus, the 13 is added to the final two digits of Shuttle-UM's series numbering. The vehicles are also grouped in several categories: PHG (Gillig Phantom), LFG (Gillig Low Floor), FFG (40 feet (12 m) Gillig Low Floor Bus), FTL (Freightliner Champion Defender), Vans (Ford E-450, Ford E-350, Dodge Sprinter, Chevrolet Express), and Motor Coach (Setra S417).

  1. ^ a b "Transit Ridership Report Fourth Quarter 2015" (pdf). American Public Transportation Association. March 2, 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-19 – via http://www.apta.com/resources/statistics/Pages/ridershipreport.aspx. 
  2. ^ a b Handbook 2012-13, p. 2
  3. ^ a b c d e "Campus Connections" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services at University of Maryland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-14. Retrieved 2012-10-14. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Hornbake Archives. "Records of Shuttle-UM". University of Maryland, College Park. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Handbook 2012-13, p. 75
  6. ^ a b c d "Shuttle-UM Regulations (2010)". Department of Transportation Services at University of Maryland. 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-06-23. Retrieved 2012-10-13.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Shuttleregulations10" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  7. ^ "Freshmen is DOTS 3 millionth rider , wins year's worth of textbooks". Campus Drive blog. 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2012-10-14. 
  8. ^ Fishel, Ed (2012-09-13). "Bus Gratis: UM Shuttle arrives". The Voice. University of Maryland, Baltimore.  Missing or empty |url= (help)
  9. ^ "Undergraduate Fall 2012 and Spring 2013 fees". University of Maryland. Retrieved 2013-04-13. 
  10. ^ "Graduate Fall 2012 and Spring 2013 fees". University of Maryland. Retrieved 2013-04-13. 
  11. ^ a b c "Use of Shuttle-UM by Greenbelt Residents". Greenbelt, Maryland City Council. 2011-08-11. Retrieved 2012-10-14. 
  12. ^ McCarty, Alicia (2010-09-29). "Divided city council passes Shuttle-UM program extension". The Diamondback. College Park, Md. Retrieved 2010-11-12. 
  13. ^ Schuman, Jonah (2008-08-14). "Shuttle service to open in September". The Gazette. College Park, Md. Retrieved 2010-11-12. 
  14. ^ Henneberg, Bailey (2012-09-11). "Shuttle-UM kicks off in Greenbelt". Greenbelt Patch. Retrieved 2012-10-14. 
  15. ^ Handbook 2012-13, p. 33
  16. ^ Handbook 2012-13, p. 50
  17. ^ a b Handbook 2012-13, p. 30
  18. ^ "Shuttle-UM loses Route 1 service but doubles resident ridership". The Gazette. 2009-07-23. Retrieved 2014-10-14. 
  19. ^ McGonigle, Kate (2009-07-15). "Bus route changes to make up for lost line". The Diamondback. Retrieved 2014-10-14. 
  20. ^ a b Department of Transportation Service at the University of Maryland (2006-08-30). "102 Campus Connector North" (PDF). R.H. Smith School Business at the University of Maryland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-17. Retrieved 2013-01-02. 
  21. ^ a b Department of Transportation Service at the University of Maryland (2006-08-30). "102 Campus Connector South" (PDF). R.H. Smith School Business at the University of Maryland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-17. Retrieved 2013-01-02. 
  22. ^ "UMD students still have Hyattsville shuttle". Hyattsville Patch. 2012-08-16. Retrieved 2012-10-16. 
  23. ^ "Service ending October 12th, 2012" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services (UMD). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-21. Retrieved 2012-10-16. 
  24. ^ "UM Shuttle". University of Maryland, Baltimore. Archived from the original on 2013-01-15. Retrieved 2012-10-16. 
  25. ^ "104-College Park Metro Station map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  26. ^ "104-College Park Metro Station map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-06-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  27. ^ "105-The Courtyards map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  28. ^ "108-Adelphi map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  29. ^ "108-Adelphi map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-06-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  30. ^ "109-River Road map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  31. ^ "110-Seven Springs Apartments map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  32. ^ "111-Silver Spring map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  33. ^ "111-Silver Spring map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-06-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  34. ^ "113-Hyattsville map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-02-26. Retrieved 2015-03-22. 
  35. ^ "113-Hyattsville map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-06-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  36. ^ "114-University View map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  37. ^ "115-Orange map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  38. ^ "116-Purple map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  39. ^ "117-Blue map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  40. ^ "118-Gold map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  41. ^ "122 Green map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  42. ^ "124-The Universities at Shady Grove map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-10-22. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  43. ^ "125-Circulator map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  44. ^ "126-New Carrollton map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  45. ^ "126-New Carrollton map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-06-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  46. ^ "127 Mazza GrandMarc map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  47. ^ "128-The Enclave map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  48. ^ "129-Franklin Park at Greenbelt Station map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. [permanent dead link]
  49. ^ "129-Franklin Park at Greenbelt Station map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-02-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  50. ^ "130-Greenbelt map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. [permanent dead link]
  51. ^ "130-Greenbelt map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-06-01. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-02-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  52. ^ "131-The Enclave and Mazza GrandMarc map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. [permanent dead link]
  53. ^ "132-The Varsity map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  54. ^ "133-The Mall at Prince George's map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  55. ^ "134-Mazza GrandMarc and Seven Springs map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  56. ^ "135 University Connector map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-05-28. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  57. ^ "136 Indigo map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-06-15. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  58. ^ "701 BioPark/Midtown Medical Center map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Parking and Transportation Services, UM Shuttle. 2014-06-09. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-01. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  59. ^ "702 Mount Vernon map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Parking and Transportation Services, UM Shuttle. 2014-06-09. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-01. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  60. ^ "703 Federal Hill map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Parking and Transportation Services, UM Shuttle. 2014-06-09. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-01. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  61. ^ "601 State Center timetable (current)" (PDF). University of Baltimore Auxiliary Enterprises, UB Shuttle. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  62. ^ "601 State Center map (current)" (PDF). University of Baltimore Auxiliary Enterprises, UB Shuttle. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  63. ^ "602 Penn Station timetable (current)" (PDF). University of Baltimore Auxiliary Enterprises, UB Shuttle. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  64. ^ "602 Penn Station map (current)" (PDF). University of Baltimore Auxiliary Enterprises, UB Shuttle. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 

Airport Transfer in East Rand

Affordable Transportation To Airport

Free public transport, often called fare free public transit or zero-fare public transport, refers to public transport funded in full by means other than collecting fares from passengers. It may be funded by national, regional or local government through taxation or by commercial sponsorship by businesses. The concept of "free-ness" is one that may take other forms, such as no-fare access via a card which may or may not be paid in its entirety by the user.

Tallinn, capital city of Estonia with more than 420,000 inhabitants, and several mid-size European cities and many smaller towns around the world have converted their public transportation networks to zero-fare. The city of Hasselt in Belgium is a notable example: fares were abolished in 1997 and ridership was as much as "13 times higher" by 2006.[1]

See list below.

Local zero-fare shuttles or inner-city loops are far more common than citywide systems. They often use buses or trams. These may be set up by a city government to ease bottlenecks or fill short gaps in the transport network.

See List of free public transport routes for a list of zero-fare routes within wider (fare-paying) networks

Zero-fare transport is often operated as part of the services offered within a public facility, such as a hospital or university campus shuttle or an airport inter-terminal shuttle.

Some zero-fare services may be built to avoid the need for large transport construction. Port cities where shipping would require very high bridges might provide zero-fare ferries instead. These are free at the point of use, just as the use of a bridge might have been. Machinery installed within a building or shopping centre can be seen as 'zero-fare transport': elevators, escalators and moving sidewalks are often provided by property owners and funded through the sales of goods and services. Community bicycle programs, providing free bicycles for short-term public use could be thought of as zero-fare transport.

A common example of zero-fare transport is student transport, where students travelling to or from school do not need to pay. A notable example is the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, which provides much of the funding to operate the Stevens Point Transit system. All students at the university can use any of the four citywide campus routes and the other four bus routes throughout the city free of charge. The university also funds two late night bus routes to serve the downtown free of charge with a goal of cutting down drunk driving.

In some regions transport is free because the revenues are lower that expenses from fare collection is already partially paid by government or company or service (for example BMO railway road in Moscow, most part of is used to as service transport and officially pick up passengers).

Many large amusement parks will have trams servicing large parking lots or distant areas. Disneyland in Anaheim, California, runs a tram from its entrance, across the parking lot, and across the street to its hotel as well as the bus stop for Orange County and Los Angeles local transit buses. Six Flags Magic Mountain in Valencia, California, provides tram service throughout its parking lot.

Dubai in the UAE, has just announced it will offer free bus services for a short period of time and it will only be on some days [2]

Transport operators can benefit from faster boarding and shorter dwell times, allowing faster timetabling of services. Although some of these benefits can be achieved in other ways, such as off-vehicle ticket sales and modern types of electronic fare collection, zero-fare transport avoids equipment and personnel costs.

Passenger aggression may be reduced. In 2008 bus drivers of Société des Transports Automobiles (STA) in Essonne held strikes demanding zero-fare transport for this reason. They claim that 90% of the aggression is related to refusal to pay the fare.[3]

Some zero-fare transport services are funded by private businesses (such as the merchants in a shopping mall) in the hope that doing so will increase sales or other revenue from increased foot traffic or ease of travel. Employers often operate free shuttles as a benefit to their employees, or as part of a congestion mitigation agreement with a local government.

Zero-fare transport can make the system more accessible and fair for low-income residents. Other benefits are the same as those attributed to public transport generally:

Global benefits of zero-fare transport are also the same as those attributed to public transport generally. If use of personal cars is discouraged, zero-fare public transport could mitigate the problems of global warming and oil depletion.

Several large U.S. municipalities have attempted zero-fare systems, but many of these implementations have been judged unsuccessful by policy-makers. A 2002 National Center for Transportation Research report suggests that, while transit ridership does tend to increase, there are also some disadvantages:[4]

This U.S. report suggests that, while ridership does increase overall, the goal of enticing drivers to take transit instead of driving is not necessarily met: because fare-free systems tend to attract a certain number of "problem riders", zero-fare systems may have the unintended effect of convincing some 'premium' riders to go back to driving their cars. It should be kept in mind that this was a study that only looked at U.S. cities, and the author's conclusions may be less applicable in other countries that have better social safety nets and less crime than the large U.S. cities studied.[4]

For local and/or limited services, see List of free public transport routes

Free public transport creates the perception of a no-cost service, just as car drivers commonly perceive no cost to deciding to take their car somewhere. The catch of the car-based system is that the car trip is not in fact free, but it is generally perceived as such.

Likewise, this perception of freeness is important for public transport, which is far more environmentally and resource efficient than own-car travel – which means in this case that full access to the system need not be altogether “free” for its users but that from a financial perspective it becomes (a) front-loaded and (b) affordable. The invariable fact of life of delivering any public service is that the money to do so must come from somewhere – and of “free” public transport that once the user has entered into some kind of “contract” with her or his city – for example a monthly or annual transit pass that opens up the public system to unlimited use for those who pay for it. Now, how they pay and how much will be part of the overall political/economic package (“contract”) of their community. In cities that offer such passes – as is the case to take but one example in most cities in France that since the mid-seventies have had their own Carte Orange – the remainder of the funds needed to pay for these services comes from other sources (mainly in this case from employers, local government).

Social-justice advocacy groups, such as the Swedish network Planka.nu, see zero-fare public transport as an effort in the redistribution of wealth.[40] It is also argued that transportation to and from work is a necessary part of the work day, and is essential to the employer in the managing of work hours. It is thus argued that financing of public transportation should fall to employers rather than private citizens.[41]

Hong Kong Airport Transfer And Vehicles Service

Airport Car Service Costs

If you are looking to arrive or depart the airport in the ultimate style and comfort, there is no better way to travel than in a limousine. Whether you are traveling for business, pleasure, hosting a special guest, hosting a corporate event, or celebrating any event, renting a limousine can provide the best airport transportation experience.Many limousine services provide prompt, reliable, and courteous airport service, with a professional chauffeur. With a professional limousines service, your uniformed chauffeur will arrive on time and be well groomed and courteous. He or she will drive safely, know how to get to your destination, open doors, and assist with luggage, providing a great experience.Renting a limo for your airport transportation might cost less than you think. It is the best way to arrive or depart from the airport. There will be no need to worry about traffic, being late, getting gasoline, parking, parking fees, having to wait for transportation or loading and unloading your luggage. Renting a limousine can also greatly reduce your stress and allow you to feel relaxed and refreshed.

Affordable Transportation To Airport

Airport Transfers Morningside

For safety and for environmental considerations Airport Transfers in Morningside, most airports are built far away from cities and other residential areas. This poses an issue of traveling to and from the airport. People need transportation to the airfield when they are flying out and need to reach the airfield in time to catch their flight. Likewise, Shuttle Bus Timetable after landing at the airfield from a flight, transport from the airfield to the city is required. Both the issues are solved with private operators operating lax airfield car services.Transportation utilities provide luxury car services to and from the airport.

Private Airport Transfers Cost

These are mainly chauffeur driven cars, for which travelers may book reservations online. This facility comes as a great advantage to the commuter. With an online reservation system, the traveler is confident that he will be picked up from his hotel, office or home by a cab and taken to the airport right on-time to catch his flight, the service being guaranteed.Most transportation utilities track national and international flights. Therefore, the commuter may rest assured that the transportation from the aerodrome will be available and waiting for him, even if the flight arrives late into the night.

Airport Car Service Cost

The traveler no longer has to depend on rented cars and driving them through rush-hour traffic. After the long journey by flight, Shuttle Bus From he could take the luxurious, relaxing ride to his hotel, home or office.They have professional chauffeurs who have been trained to accommodate customer needs. They possess the required expertise and knowledge to conduct the traveler to and from the destination. They know the city roads like the back of their hands and can help the traveler reach his destination on time, even if the normal city roads are choked with traffic.

Executive Limousine Service For Airport Transportation

Affordable Private Transportation Services

Airport car service providers value the relationship with their customers and strive to maintain the required professionalism that is expected from such executive luxury service. These smart luxury car services are hard to forget once their utility has been realized.

Airport Transfers in Morningside ?

Airport Pickup Service Cost   (Redirected from Shuttle bus service) A transit bus operating in Campinas, Brazil

Public transport bus services are generally based on regular operation of transit buses along a route calling at agreed bus stops according to a published public transport timetable.

Parisian Omnibus, late nineteenth century A public transport timetable for bus services in England in the 1940s and 1950s

While there are indications of experiments with public transport in Paris as early as 1662,[1][2][3] there is evidence of a scheduled "bus route" from Market Street in Manchester to Pendleton in Salford UK, started by John Greenwood in 1824.[4]

Another claim for the first public transport system for general use originated in Nantes, France, in 1826. Stanislas Baudry, a retired army officer who had built public baths using the surplus heat from his flour mill on the city's edge, set up a short route between the center of town and his baths. The service started on the Place du Commerce, outside the hat shop of a M. Omnès, who displayed the motto Omnès Omnibus (Latin for "everything for everybody" or "all for all") on his shopfront. When Baudry discovered that passengers were just as interested in getting off at intermediate points as in patronizing his baths, he changed the route's focus. His new voiture omnibus ("carriage for all") combined the functions of the hired hackney carriage with a stagecoach that travelled a predetermined route from inn to inn, carrying passengers and mail. His omnibus had wooden benches that ran down the sides of the vehicle; passengers entered from the rear.

In 1828, Baudry went to Paris where he founded a company under the name Entreprise générale des omnibus de Paris, while his son Edmond Baudry founded two similar companies in Bordeaux and in Lyon.[5]

A London newspaper reported on July 4, 1829 that "the new vehicle, called the omnibus, commenced running this morning from Paddington to the City", operated by George Shillibeer.

The first omnibus service in New York began in 1829, when Abraham Brower, an entrepreneur who had organized volunteer fire companies, established a route along Broadway starting at Bowling Green. Other American cities soon followed suit: Philadelphia in 1831, Boston in 1835 and Baltimore in 1844. In most cases, the city governments granted a private company—generally a small stableman already in the livery or freight-hauling business—an exclusive franchise to operate public coaches along a specified route. In return, the company agreed to maintain certain minimum levels of service.

In 1832 the New York omnibus had a rival when the first trams, or streecars started operation along Bowery,[6] which offered the excellent improvement in amenity of riding on smooth iron rails rather than clattering over granite setts, called "Belgian blocks". The streetcars were financed by John Mason, a wealthy banker, and built by an Irish-American contractor, John Stephenson. The Fifth Avenue Coach Company introduced electric buses to Fifth Avenue in New York in 1898.

In 1831, New Yorker Washington Irving remarked of Britain's Reform Act (finally passed in 1832): "The great reform omnibus moves but slowly." Steam buses emerged in the 1830s as competition to the horse-drawn buses.

The omnibus extended the reach of the emerging cities. The walk from the former village of Paddington to the business heart of London in the City was a long one, even for a young man in good condition. The omnibus thus offered the suburbs more access to the inner city. The omnibus encouraged urbanization. Socially, the omnibus put city-dwellers, even if for only half an hour, into previously-unheard-of physical intimacy with strangers, squeezing them together knee-to-knee. Only the very poor remained excluded. A new division in urban society now came to the fore, dividing those who kept carriages from those who did not. The idea of the "carriage trade", the folk who never set foot in the streets, who had goods brought out from the shops for their appraisal, has its origins in the omnibus crush.

John D. Hertz founded the Yellow Coach Manufacturing Company in 1923 and then sold a majority of shares to General Motors in 1925.

From the 1920s General Motors and others started buying up streetcar systems across the United States with a view to replacing them with buses in what became known as the Great American Streetcar Scandal.[7] This was accompanied by a continuing series of technical improvements: pneumatic "balloon" tires during the early 1920s, monocoque body construction in 1931, automatic transmission in 1936, diesel engines in 1936, 50+ passengers in 1948, and air suspension in 1953.[8]

The arrest of Rosa Parks in 1955 for not giving up her seat to a white man on a public bus is considered one of the catalyst of the Civil Rights Movement within the United States.

A bi-articulated bus on the RIT bus rapid transit system in Curitiba, Brazil An urban bus in Gómez Palacio, Durango, Mexico.

The names of different types of bus services vary according to local tradition or marketing, although services can be classified into basic types based on route length, frequency, purpose of use and type of bus used.

Long-distance coach services (US: Intercity bus line) are bus services operated over long distances between cities. These services can form the mainstay of the travel network in countries with poor railway infrastructure. Different coach operators may band together on a franchise or connecting basis to offer a branded network that covers large distances, such as Trailways and National Express. These networks can even operate internationally, such as Eurolines of Europe. Interurban bus services are primarily aimed at linking together one or more urban centres, and as such are often run as express services while travelling in the intermediate rural areas, or even only call at two terminal points as a long distance shuttle service. Some interurban services may be operated as high specification luxury services, using coaches, in order to compete with railways, or link areas not rail connected. Interurban services may often terminate in central bus stations rather than on street stops. Other interurban services may specifically call at intermediate villages and may use slower transit buses or dual purpose buses.


A shuttle bus service in Sydney. School Bus See also: Public transport timetable

Many public bus services are run to a specific timetable giving specific times of departure and arrival at waypoints along the route. These are often difficult to maintain in the event of traffic congestion, breakdowns, on/off bus incidents, road blockages or bad weather. Predictable effects such as morning and evening rush hour traffic are often accounted for in timetables using past experience of the effects, although this then prevents the opportunity for drafting a ‘clock face’ timetable where the time of a bus is predictable at any time through the day. Predictable short term increases in passenger numbers may be dealt with by providing “duplicate” buses, where two or more buses operate the same slot in the timetable. Unpredictable problems resulting in delays and gaps in the timetabled service may be dealt with by ‘turning’ a bus early before it reaches it terminus, so that it can fill a gap in the opposite direction, meaning any passengers on the turned bus need to disembark and continue on a following bus. Also, depending on the location of the bus depot, replacement buses may be dispatched from the depot to fill in other gaps, starting the timetable part way along the route.

There is a common cliché that people “wait all day, and then three come along at once”, in relation to a phenomenon where evenly timetabled bus services can develop a gap in service followed by buses turning up almost simultaneously. This occurs when the rush hour begins and numbers of passengers at a stop increases, increasing the loading time, and thus delay scheduled service. The following bus then catches up because it begins to be delayed less at stops due to fewer passengers waiting. This is called bus bunching. This is prevented in some cities such as Berlin by assigning every stop arrival times where scheduled buses should arrive no earlier than specified.

Some services may have no specific departure times, the timetable giving the frequency of service on a route at particular phases of the day. This may be specified with departure times, but the over-riding factor is ensuring the regularity of buses arriving at stops. These are often the more frequent services, up to the busiest bus rapid transit schemes. For headway-based schemes, problems can be managed by changing speed, delaying at stops and leap-frogging a bus boarding at a stop.

Services may be strictly regulated in terms of level of adherence to timetables, and how often timetables may be changed. Operators and authorities may employ on street bus inspectors to monitor adherence in real time. Service operators often have a control room, or in the case of large operations, route controllers, who can monitor the level of service on routes and can take remedial action if problems occur. This was made easier with the technological advances of two way radio contact with drivers, and vehicle tracking systems.

Bus services have led to the implementation of various types of infrastructure now common in many urban and suburban settings. The most prevalent example is the ubiquitous bus stop. Large interchanges have required the building of bus stations. In roads and streets, infrastructure for buses has resulted in modifications to the kerb line such as protrusions and indentations, and even special kerb stones. Entire lanes or roads have been reserved for buses in bus lanes or busways. Bus fleets require large storage premises often located in urban areas, and may also make use of central works facilities.

Bus station in rural Russia See also: On-time performance

The level and reliability of bus services is often dependent on the quality of the local road network and levels of traffic congestion, and the population density. Services may be organised on tightly regulated networks with restrictions on when and where services operate, while other services are operated on an ad hoc basis in the model of share taxis.

Increasingly, technology is being used to improve the information provided to bus users, with vehicle tracking technologies to assist with scheduling, and to achieve real time integration with passenger information systems that display service information at stops, inside buses, and to waiting passengers through personal mobile devices or text messaging.

Bus drivers may be required to conduct fare collection, inspect a travel pass or free travel pass, or oversee stored-value card debiting. This may require the fitting of equipment to the bus. Alternatively, this duty and equipment may be delegated to a conductor who rides on the bus. In other areas, public transport buses may operate on a zero-fare basis, or ticket validation may be through use of on-board/off-board proof-of-payment systems, checked by roving ticket controllers who board and alight buses at random.

In some competitive systems, an incumbent operator may introduce a “low cost unit” paying lower wages, in order to be able to offer lower fares, using older buses cascaded from a main fleet to also reduce costs. In some sectors, operators such as Megabus (both in the UK and in North America) have attempted to emulate the low cost airlines model in order to attract passengers through low fares, by offering no frills bus services.

See also: List of bus operating companies

Public transport bus operation is differentiated from other bus operation by the fact the owner or driver of a bus is employed by or contracted to an organisation whose main public duty or commercial interest is to provide a public transport service for passengers to turn up and use, rather than fulfilling private contracts between the bus operator and user. Public transport buses are operated as a common carrier under a contract of carriage between the passenger and the operator.

The owners of public transport buses may be the municipal authority or transit authority that operates them, or they may be owned by individuals or private companies who operate them on behalf of the authorities on a franchise or contract basis. Other buses may be run entirely as private concerns, either on an owner-driver basis, or as multi-national transport groups. Some countries have specifically deregulated their bus services, allowing private operators to provide public bus services. In this case, an authority may make up the shortfall in levels of private service provision by funding or operating ‘socially necessary’ services, such as early or late services, on the weekends, or less busy routes. Ownership/operation of public transport buses can also take the form of a charitable operation or not for profit social enterprises.

Larger operations may have fleets of thousands of vehicles. At its peak in the 1950s, the London Transport Executive owned a bus fleet of 8,000 buses, the largest in the world. Many small operators have only a few vehicles or a single bus owned by an owner driver. Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation holds the Guinness world record of having largest fleet of buses with 22,555 buses.[9]

In all cases in the developed world, public transport bus services are usually subject to some form of legal control in terms of vehicle safety standards and method of operation, and possibly the level of fares charged and routes operated.

Increasingly bus services are being made accessible, often in response to regulations and recommendations laid out in disability discrimination laws. This has resulted in the introduction of flexible bus services, and the introduction of Low-floor buses with features aimed at helping elderly, disabled or impaired passengers.

Hong Kong Airport Transfer And Vehicles Service

Best Transportation To Airport

Shuttle-UM is a transit system for the University of Maryland, College Park (UMD), which constitutes the UM acronym of the company, that operates as a unit of the university's Department of Transportation Services. The system is student-run and is supported by student fees and the university's Student Affairs department.[2] Its fleet consists of over 60 vehicles and transports approximately three million rides a year.[2] The system provides four different services: commuter, evening, charter, and demand response.[3] The latter consists of a paratransit service and a call response curb-to-curb service during the evening, while the former consists of a bus service that runs for 24 hours, seven days a week. Implied by its name, the bus service routes "shuttle" passengers to and from the university with over 20 different routes. Paid upon admission by students to the university, the services are complimentary and only certain services require university identification badges. In 2012, the company expanded to provide service to the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB) campus under the name, UM Shuttle. Additionally, a new facility was built to house Shuttle-UM's operations and fleet within the campus after over 30 years of being housed off campus.

Shuttle-UM was established in November 1972 by the University of Maryland, College Park's (UMD) Black Student Union as an initiative to promote security for students walking through campus during the evening hours. Operations began with the use of two vans to circulate campus, which were purchased by UMD's Student Government Association (SGA), the campus' student governing body, through approval by the Office of Commuter Student Affairs, a campus organization supporting students commuters. The operations were run in the basement of a residence hall on campus and consisted of running the vans on two fixed routes. By Spring 1973, the Residence Hall Association, the governing body for the campus' dormitory halls, donated an additional van which led to three fixed routes running through campus in the evening.[4] By the end of the system's first year of service, 65,000 had been transported.[4] The following year saw the addition of daytime routes to operations to parking lots and the establishment of Call-A-Ride, which was the original first curb-to-curb service for the transit system.[4] In 1975, four Mercedes Benz vans were purchased to expand the fleet to six vehicles. This same year, the name Shuttle-UM was established, three years after being a service provided by SGA, Shuttle-UM was now an independent entity for UMD.[4] Upon the transit system's independence, Charter service was added to its operations in 1975; the following year saw expansion to the curb-to-curb service with Disability Transit Service" for handicap persons; off-campus routes were established in 1976.

During the fall of 1978, Shuttle-UM's first facility was built on an off-campus parking lot on Greenhouse Road adjacent to Baltimore Avenue.[5] The new facility, known as UMD Building 013, featured a 12,000 gallon underground diesel tank, numerous maintenance bays, and a bus wash bay. Upon 1979, the project that started as a security service expanded to a transit system consisting of 10 routes with over 20 vehicles.[6] Barri Standish was hired as the first non-student full-time staff member to serve as the General Manager for Shuttle-UM to provide student guidance in transit operations.[4] Through 1985 and 1988, the Greenhouse facility was expanded to allocate growing operations with administrative offices and maintenance bays.[5] Shuttle-UM's expansion in 1985 also composed of ridership growing to 1.1 million passengers annually and employing 125 student employees that took the positions of "drivers, dispatchers, maintenance assistance, trainers, and managers."[6] By 1986, Shuttle-UM became a member of the American Public Transportation Association and the Transit Association of Maryland.[4] Within 1999 and 2001, the facility's maintenance bays were expanded to accommodate the growing fleet caused by the growing ridership; the administrative offices also underwent a further expansion in 2001 to accommodate growing employment.[5]

For several years, the annual ridership remained above 2 million; however, during the 2011-12 academic year, DOTS started an initiative that would reward their three millionth rider with free books for a school year, which ultimately commenced in their first year with 3 million riders.[7] In 2012, the construction of a brand new facility was completed on Paint Branch Drive within campus adjacent to the XFINITY Center. This new facility fit into DOTS' mission and goal to be more sustainable.

A Shuttle-UM 35 ft. Gillig Low Floor bus

The facility included geo-thermal heating and cooling systems, a green roof, and an in-ground filtration system to separate run-off diesel and storm water in the fueling area. The new facility was able to house all administration that was expanded within the years at the Greenhouse facility and featured an above-ground diesel tank that stored 2,000 gallons more.[5]

Shuttle UM Gillig Advantage at Prince George's Plaza

Shuttle-UM saw its first expansion with the introduction of its UM Shuttle service for the University of Maryland, Baltimore campus which strictly serves the surrounding Baltimore areas near campus. President Jay Perman reached an agreement with UMD to answer requests of the UMB community to obtain a shuttle service within campus. In August 2012, UM Shuttle officially launched and began to transport staff, faculty, and other members of the UMB community with three distinct routes. The vehicles for these routes are operated in Baltimore but housed in the Paint Branch facility and driven by UMD employees. Like Shuttle-UM, university ID's grant access to riding the shuttles for UMB.[8]

Shuttle-UM and UM Shuttle are complimentary services via paid student fees and UMD's Student Affairs' funds.[9][10] Additionally, living complexes and businesses pay the organization to run the service in their area, which allow riders to ride by just showing drivers a university ID, not limited to University of Maryland System schools.[11] Residents of College Park were granted access to Shuttle-UM's services via a program approved by city council in 2010, which granted residents passes to show drivers.[12][13] In September 2012, the city of Greenbelt passed a similar program to that of College Park allowing passes for its residents to use Shuttle-UM's services.[14]

Shuttle-UM, although as separate entity in the beginning, is now a branch of DOTS, along with Campus Parking Enforcement. Both are housed at the Paint Branch facility; however, customer inquires regarding parking operate out of Regents Drive Garage offices. Located at Regents Drive Garage are the directors of DOTS, which is overseen by Senior Director David Allen: the directors delegate planning and oversee activity of every branch of the corporation. Every driving staff member for Shuttle-UM that holds a Commercial Driver's License (CDL) is assigned a unit number, which are uniquely grouped to identify different departments and status'. These unit numbers are used to eliminate the usage of full names while having radio contact and have an important role in operations for the company.[5]

The Shuttle-UM and Campus Parking Enforcement operations branches of DOTS are overseen by its Senior Associate Director, Armand Scala, who directly reports to Allen. The two chief executives are regarded as being at the top realm of company operations, who work directly with numerous full-time chief operatives. Under the executives are the full-time shift supervisors, who directly manage the full-time driving staff. Student managers have the responsibility of managing student driving staff, alongside being responsible for running several departments of the organization's operations, such as Dispatch and Demand Response.[5]

The drivers for Shuttle-UM are all required to have a CDL class B, with passenger and air-brakes endorsement. These requirements are to be met in order to operate the vehicles in Shuttle-UM's fleet. Although completely composed of student drivers upon the company's inception, as of 2013, staff now features non-student full-time and part-time drivers. The full-time driving staff have a set schedule package that they select before every academic semester (Fall, Winter, Spring, and Summer) for UMCP consisting of 40 hours. Students are required to be enrolled at UMCP or University of Maryland, University College (UMUC), the latter due to the sister school sharing the UMCP campus, in order to be eligible to go through CDL training with Shuttle-UM. Students are given the opportunity to obtain their CDL granted upon that they complete a semester's worth of driving, where upon they have the option of leaving or exploring different departments to work for. Like the full-timers, students select shifts before the Spring and Fall semesters only, which are their weekly permanent shifts. Unlike full-time staff, students have more flexibility in choosing individual shifts rather than packages.[15]

Maintenance is overseen by the Fleet Maintenance Manager, who operates through numerous full-time field managers. These on-site managers are in charge of coordinating service to all vehicles in the fleet for Shuttle-UM and Campus Parking Enforcement, which both make up DOTS. Service done to these vehicles include but are not limited to preventative maintenance, DOT inspections, and fixing mechanical problems. Maintenance operates out of multiple bays located in the Paint Branch facility, which facilitates their work due to the facility also housing parking for all vehicles.[16]

The training department consists of certified CDL full-time instructors that are responsible for coordinate training to drivers, students and full-timers, who which to seek employment with Shuttle-UM and obtaining a CDL license. Training consists of multiple sessions that gives drivers numerous hours of training through range and road exercises in order to prepare them for CDL exams administered at the Motor Vehicle Administration (MVA). Upon their CDL completion, training is also responsible for giving orientations of all Shuttle-UM commercial vehicles in order to give all drivers and equal opportunity in driving routes that require different vehicles.[17]

The dispatch department is responsible for transit operations in regards to all services provided by the company, including demand response and fixed routes. All dispatchers are students, who are trained to operate the technology and equipment necessary to ensure service is operative. The dispatchers report directly to the shift supervisors upon problems arising before executing decisions that will ensure service being completed. Dispatch also coordinates all customer service inquires regarding routes, demand response, charter, staff, and campus guests. The Shuttle-UM dispatch department operates in sync with the University of Maryland Police Department (UMPD), due to the organization being a state-governed agency: this connection with UMPD provides a branch of safety to drivers and to passengers upon distress signals and accident response. As a result, Shuttle-UM dispatch uses certain police 10-codes for daily operations. Aside from dealing with transit operations, the dispatchers are responsible for recording ridership tallies that are radio communicated to them by drivers upon the completion of every run of every route, which in turn gives the organization passenger data to work with in operations.[17]

A 40 ft. Flxible Metro bus in service at Regents Drive Parking Garage. This photo was taken before all of the remaining Flxibles retired in early 2013.

Beginning with simply two routes in 1972, the company has expanded its bus service by currently having 27 routes (23 that serve UMD, 3 that serve UMB, and 1 that serves BSU). Since its existence, the company has added and dropped several of its routes. These known documented instances are noted below. At the conclusion of the 2008-2009 academic year, Shuttle-UM ceased the operation of its 101 Route One Corridor service due to low ridership. This route once had the highest ridership of all routes in operation, but at the current time only averaged over 100 passengers a day. Certain stops that the community rallied to be served were added onto the 110 Seven Springs Apartments route to compensate.[18][19] At the conclusion of the 2007-2008 academic year, the 102 Campus Connector North and 103 Campus Connector South were discontinued in favor of the 125 Campus Circulator. The campus "connector" routes were the only routes that ran through campus before the start of the evening routes. For undisclosed reasons, the routes were merged into one route that saw the continuation of service through the same areas and regions of campus that were originally served.[20][21]

At the conclusion of the 2011-12 academic year, the city of Greenbelt saw a reduction in service by Shuttle-UM. The 101 Beltway Plaza served the Beltway Plaza shopping mall by providing students a shopping outlet on the weekends. The route was last served during 2011-2012 and quietly terminated at the start of 2012-13.[3][11]

A Shuttle-UM bus stop located on the UMD campus

Additionally, the 131 Mazza Grandmarc/Enclave Franklin Park no longer ran to the Franklin Park complex in Greenbelt after 2011-12.[3][11] The creation of the 130 Greenbelt and expanded service to the 129 Franklin Park at Greenbelt Station for the 2011-12 academic year saw the merger of the 106 Greenbelt North and 119 Greenbelt South routes, which last ran at the conclusion of 2010-11.[3][6] Additional routes that saw changes included the 123 M-Square which was cancelled between 2010–11 and 2012–13, which saw its services expanded onto the 109 River Road; the 108 Powder Mill Village received a name change and service change to 108 Adelphi by not serving the apartment complex any further.[3][6]

At the conclusion of 2011-12, the 113 University Town Center and 113 University Town Center (Saturday) lost ridership and lost its University Town Center Towers complex funding sponsor. As a result, the route was to be terminated. However, negotiations between student groups and DOTS resulted in the route being kept for one more year (2012–13) under the name 113 Hyattsville which extended the service to the Hyattsville residential neighborhoods.[22] The 2012-13 year saw the cancellation of the company's "park and ride" services: 101 Burtonsville Park and Ride, 107 Laurel Park and Ride, and 120 Bowie Park and Ride. As Shuttle-UM's first aim to promote sustainability by providing service to regions further than the surrounding campus, the routes servicing Burtonsville, Bowie, and Laurel saw a decline in ridership. Riders protested its cancellation; however, on October 12, the routes were serviced for the final time while DOTS provided alternatives for the riders in reaching campus. Additionally to the decline in riders, the 124 The Universities at Shady Grove route required more buses and funds to maintain, thus the park and rides fate was determined by a budget cut necessary to maintain the 124.[23]

With the expansion of Shuttle-UM into Baltimore at the UMB campus, three routes began to service the area in 2012-13 with 701 BioPark, 702 Mount Vernon, and 703 Federal Hill servicing the immediate UMB campus seven days a week.[24]

The Shuttle-UM transit system operates primarily at the University of Maryland, College Park (UMD) campus with satellite service at the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB) and University of Baltimore (UB). There are currently 31 routes (26 serviced at UMD, 3 serviced at UMB, and 2 serviced at UB) that operate for the University System of Maryland (USM). The UMD routes hub on campus at one of its two terminals: Adele H. Stamp Student Union and Regents Drive Parking Garage, with the exception of one route (see 109 River Road). The UMB routes hub on campus at the Pearl Street Garage. The UB routes hub at one of two terminals: State Center (on campus) and Penn Station (off campus). As the name of the organization implies, the transit system operates as a "shuttle" to and from campus.

There are 15 documented routes that have been cancelled, altered, or renamed.

Scheduled bus service is also available for academic semester breaks from Stamp Student Union to areas outside of Maryland.

Transportation to Metropark in New Jersey allows access to Amtrak and New Jersey Transit routes. Bus service to the Port Authority Bus Terminal provides indirect access to JFK, LaGuardia and other transit options in New York City.

Shuttle-UM also has seasonal routes to the Cherry Hill Mall in Cherry Hill, NJ and Philadelphia.

Shuttle-UM owns over 70 vehicles used to fulfill its service. They range from a variety of builders, models, length, and engine transmission. The company numbers its series according to the year the vehicle was registered to begin service. For example, vehicle 3813 is a 2013 Gillig Low Floor bus, but was not placed in service until 2013. Thus, the 13 is added to the final two digits of Shuttle-UM's series numbering. The vehicles are also grouped in several categories: PHG (Gillig Phantom), LFG (Gillig Low Floor), FFG (40 feet (12 m) Gillig Low Floor Bus), FTL (Freightliner Champion Defender), Vans (Ford E-450, Ford E-350, Dodge Sprinter, Chevrolet Express), and Motor Coach (Setra S417).

  1. ^ a b "Transit Ridership Report Fourth Quarter 2015" (pdf). American Public Transportation Association. March 2, 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-19 – via http://www.apta.com/resources/statistics/Pages/ridershipreport.aspx. 
  2. ^ a b Handbook 2012-13, p. 2
  3. ^ a b c d e "Campus Connections" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services at University of Maryland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-14. Retrieved 2012-10-14. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Hornbake Archives. "Records of Shuttle-UM". University of Maryland, College Park. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Handbook 2012-13, p. 75
  6. ^ a b c d "Shuttle-UM Regulations (2010)". Department of Transportation Services at University of Maryland. 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-06-23. Retrieved 2012-10-13.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Shuttleregulations10" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  7. ^ "Freshmen is DOTS 3 millionth rider , wins year's worth of textbooks". Campus Drive blog. 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2012-10-14. 
  8. ^ Fishel, Ed (2012-09-13). "Bus Gratis: UM Shuttle arrives". The Voice. University of Maryland, Baltimore.  Missing or empty |url= (help)
  9. ^ "Undergraduate Fall 2012 and Spring 2013 fees". University of Maryland. Retrieved 2013-04-13. 
  10. ^ "Graduate Fall 2012 and Spring 2013 fees". University of Maryland. Retrieved 2013-04-13. 
  11. ^ a b c "Use of Shuttle-UM by Greenbelt Residents". Greenbelt, Maryland City Council. 2011-08-11. Retrieved 2012-10-14. 
  12. ^ McCarty, Alicia (2010-09-29). "Divided city council passes Shuttle-UM program extension". The Diamondback. College Park, Md. Retrieved 2010-11-12. 
  13. ^ Schuman, Jonah (2008-08-14). "Shuttle service to open in September". The Gazette. College Park, Md. Retrieved 2010-11-12. 
  14. ^ Henneberg, Bailey (2012-09-11). "Shuttle-UM kicks off in Greenbelt". Greenbelt Patch. Retrieved 2012-10-14. 
  15. ^ Handbook 2012-13, p. 33
  16. ^ Handbook 2012-13, p. 50
  17. ^ a b Handbook 2012-13, p. 30
  18. ^ "Shuttle-UM loses Route 1 service but doubles resident ridership". The Gazette. 2009-07-23. Retrieved 2014-10-14. 
  19. ^ McGonigle, Kate (2009-07-15). "Bus route changes to make up for lost line". The Diamondback. Retrieved 2014-10-14. 
  20. ^ a b Department of Transportation Service at the University of Maryland (2006-08-30). "102 Campus Connector North" (PDF). R.H. Smith School Business at the University of Maryland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-17. Retrieved 2013-01-02. 
  21. ^ a b Department of Transportation Service at the University of Maryland (2006-08-30). "102 Campus Connector South" (PDF). R.H. Smith School Business at the University of Maryland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-17. Retrieved 2013-01-02. 
  22. ^ "UMD students still have Hyattsville shuttle". Hyattsville Patch. 2012-08-16. Retrieved 2012-10-16. 
  23. ^ "Service ending October 12th, 2012" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services (UMD). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-21. Retrieved 2012-10-16. 
  24. ^ "UM Shuttle". University of Maryland, Baltimore. Archived from the original on 2013-01-15. Retrieved 2012-10-16. 
  25. ^ "104-College Park Metro Station map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  26. ^ "104-College Park Metro Station map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-06-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  27. ^ "105-The Courtyards map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  28. ^ "108-Adelphi map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  29. ^ "108-Adelphi map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-06-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  30. ^ "109-River Road map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  31. ^ "110-Seven Springs Apartments map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  32. ^ "111-Silver Spring map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  33. ^ "111-Silver Spring map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-06-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  34. ^ "113-Hyattsville map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-02-26. Retrieved 2015-03-22. 
  35. ^ "113-Hyattsville map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-06-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  36. ^ "114-University View map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  37. ^ "115-Orange map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  38. ^ "116-Purple map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  39. ^ "117-Blue map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  40. ^ "118-Gold map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  41. ^ "122 Green map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  42. ^ "124-The Universities at Shady Grove map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-10-22. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  43. ^ "125-Circulator map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  44. ^ "126-New Carrollton map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  45. ^ "126-New Carrollton map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-06-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  46. ^ "127 Mazza GrandMarc map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  47. ^ "128-The Enclave map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  48. ^ "129-Franklin Park at Greenbelt Station map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. [permanent dead link]
  49. ^ "129-Franklin Park at Greenbelt Station map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-02-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  50. ^ "130-Greenbelt map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. [permanent dead link]
  51. ^ "130-Greenbelt map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-06-01. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-02-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  52. ^ "131-The Enclave and Mazza GrandMarc map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. [permanent dead link]
  53. ^ "132-The Varsity map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  54. ^ "133-The Mall at Prince George's map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  55. ^ "134-Mazza GrandMarc and Seven Springs map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  56. ^ "135 University Connector map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-05-28. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  57. ^ "136 Indigo map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-06-15. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  58. ^ "701 BioPark/Midtown Medical Center map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Parking and Transportation Services, UM Shuttle. 2014-06-09. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-01. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  59. ^ "702 Mount Vernon map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Parking and Transportation Services, UM Shuttle. 2014-06-09. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-01. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  60. ^ "703 Federal Hill map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Parking and Transportation Services, UM Shuttle. 2014-06-09. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-01. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  61. ^ "601 State Center timetable (current)" (PDF). University of Baltimore Auxiliary Enterprises, UB Shuttle. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  62. ^ "601 State Center map (current)" (PDF). University of Baltimore Auxiliary Enterprises, UB Shuttle. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  63. ^ "602 Penn Station timetable (current)" (PDF). University of Baltimore Auxiliary Enterprises, UB Shuttle. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  64. ^ "602 Penn Station map (current)" (PDF). University of Baltimore Auxiliary Enterprises, UB Shuttle. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
Airport Transportation Service Costs

https://www.gloviz.co.za/river-club/

Gloviz Have Airport Transfer List

Cheap Airport Transfers Sandhurst

For safety and for environmental considerations Cheap Airport Transfers in Sandhurst, most airports are built far away from cities and other residential areas. This poses an issue of traveling to and from the airport. People need transportation to the airfield when they are flying out and need to reach the airfield in time to catch their flight. Likewise, Taxi From Airport after landing at the airfield from a flight, transport from the airfield to the city is required. Both the issues are solved with private operators operating lax airfield car services.Transportation utilities provide luxury car services to and from the airport.

Airport Transportation Seattle Cost

These are mainly chauffeur driven cars, for which travelers may book reservations online. This facility comes as a great advantage to the commuter. With an online reservation system, the traveler is confident that he will be picked up from his hotel, office or home by a cab and taken to the airport right on-time to catch his flight, the service being guaranteed.Most transportation utilities track national and international flights. Therefore, the commuter may rest assured that the transportation from the aerodrome will be available and waiting for him, even if the flight arrives late into the night.

Airport Transportation Service Costs

The traveler no longer has to depend on rented cars and driving them through rush-hour traffic. After the long journey by flight, Airport To Resort Transfers he could take the luxurious, relaxing ride to his hotel, home or office.They have professional chauffeurs who have been trained to accommodate customer needs. They possess the required expertise and knowledge to conduct the traveler to and from the destination. They know the city roads like the back of their hands and can help the traveler reach his destination on time, even if the normal city roads are choked with traffic.

Free public transport

Airport Shuttle Service Price

Airport car service providers value the relationship with their customers and strive to maintain the required professionalism that is expected from such executive luxury service. These smart luxury car services are hard to forget once their utility has been realized.

Cheap Airport Transfers in Sandhurst ?

Affordable Transportation To Airport First London & London General AEC Routemasters on The Strand

The privatisation of London bus services was the process of the transfer of operation of London Buses from public bodies to private companies.

For half a century, operation of London bus services for public transport was under the direct control of a number of entities known as London Transport. The London Regional Transport Act 1984 resulted in London Regional Transport taking control of London's bus routes, with the operation divested in stand alone companies that were privatised in 1994/95.

Since then, direct provision of bus services in London has been run by private companies, although Transport for London did operate its own company, East Thames Buses between 1999 and 2009.

Unlike those in the rest of the United Kingdom, the bus services in London, although still ultimately privatised, were not deregulated to the same extent. In London, details of routes, fares and services levels were still specified by public bodies, with the right to run the services contracted to private companies on a tendered basis.

The privatised period produced for the first time buses in London painted in different schemes from the traditional red. This ceased following a 1997 edict that London buses be 80% red.

London Buses MCW Metrobus at Piccadilly Circus in October 1987

On 29 June 1984, in the general move towards deregulation, responsibility for running London bus services transferred from the last public body running London's buses, the Greater London Council to London Regional Transport under the London Regional Transport Act 1984. This Act required arm's-length subsidiaries to be established to oversee operation of bus services, and on 29 March 1985 London Buses Limited[1] was incorporated.[2]

Initially, bus livery continued to be all-over red with a simple solid white roundel, but in 1987 this livery was revised with the addition of a grey skirt and a white mid-level relief line; in the same year a modified red and yellow roundel, with the name 'London Buses' in capitals, was introduced.[3]

Grey-Green Alexander bodied Volvo Citybus as used on route 24

Under the 1984 Act, London bus services were to be tendered. The first round of tendering took place in the summer of 1985, bringing the first private operator into the market, in the form of London Buslines on route 81. By 1988 Boro'line Maidstone, Grey-Green and Metrobus were also operating numerous London routes.[4]

Controversially, these operators were allowed to operate buses in liveries other than standard red, meaning that for the first time it was possible for non-red buses to run into the centre of London, such as those on high-profile route 24 operated by Grey-Green. The only requirement was to display the London Transport roundel on the bus, to designate a London Transport tendered service. Ironically, several of the new private entrants were descendants of London Transport's former 'green' buses division, which operated outer London services that were passed to the National Bus Company's control as London Country Bus Services, in 1969.

The private competition was not without controversy, with objections to non-red buses leading to an edict in 1997 specifying 80% red liveries. The tendering also caused problems with several operators needing to hire buses due to late delivery of new buses for newly won routes.

One such controversial route was the arrangements for tendering route 60 which was initially awarded to Capital Logistics. Difficulties in setting up the route eventually saw operation by eight different operators and 10 different bus types in a short space of time, before the route finally gained a stable arrangement. [5]

The collapse of Harris Bus in December 1999, led to London Transport forming East Thames Buses as an arm's-length company to provide temporary operation of the routes. It was retained by the new Transport for London authority, to tender for routes itself until sold in October 2009 to the Go-Ahead Group.[6][7]

London Forest AEC Routemaster in 1991 London Northern Leyland Titan in 1992 CentreWest Challenger Alexander bodied Mercedes-Benz

On 1 April 1989 London Buses was divided into 12 business units, in preparation for sell-off. The companies were created along geographic lines, with all but Westlink having routes running into Central London. The division names and a small graphic device were added to the buses, in white. An exception to this was the Westlink unit, which received a new livery altogether. Some of the names chosen were drawn from the pre London Transport era, namely London General Omnibus Company and London United Tramways.

The separate business units created were:

Unlike the other units, Centrewest quickly branded its buses into separate groups, in the main removing the London Buses roundel in favour of various gold designs, with just the central services remaining in a slightly altered roundel based scheme. The group brands were: Challenger, Ealing Buses, Gold Arrow, Uxbridge Buses, Hillingdon local service and Orpington Buses.

Preserved Bexleybus Leyland Titan

During this time of separate business unit operation by London Buses, many new bus types were also being introduced, notably the Dennis Dart midibus as well as numerous minibuses. Several of these new vehicles received specialist branding from normal unit liveries, such as:

In the new era of private tendering, in an effort to compete with the new private operators entering the market, London Buses set up some low cost units to compete for tenders, painted in non-red liveries. The most notable were Harrow Buses[21] and Bexleybus, tendering for routes in the Harrow and Bexleyheath areas respectively.

These units were not overly successful, due to unreliable service, and industrial disputes due to lower pay rates than for the main London units. Their routes were quickly surrendered to other units or private operators.

Between September 1994 and January 1995, the separate London Buses business units were sold off. Competition rules restricted the number of units that could be bought by one group. All the units were sold either to their management or employees, or to one of the emerging national bus groups that had been growing through acquisition of deregulated companies in the rest of the UK. The exception was London Northern, which was bought by MTL, itself an expanding company formed from the privatisation of the Merseyside Passenger Transport Executive bus company.

Following sell-off, the new operators introduced new liveries, logos and trading names to many of the business units. Initially some buses appeared in liveries other than red, but an edict that all buses be 80% red saw this reversed from 1997. Some companies having been renamed, have since resumed their original identities.

The only unit not to be sold off was London Forest, which was wound up in the autumn of 1991 following poor financial performance and industrial action; its operating area was subsequently taken up by East London and Leaside Buses, although 11 of its routes in the Walthamstow area passed to private operators Capital Citybus, Thamesway Buses and County Bus.

The sell-off of the units proceeded as follows:

Capital Citybus Northern Counties bodied Leyland Olympian at Chingford station in June 1999 Centra Alexander Royale bodied Volvo Olympian Kentish Bus AEC Routemaster in July 1993 London & Country Leyland Lynx in Purley in May 1993 London Traveller East Lancs Spryte bodied Volvo B6BLE in August 1999 Preserved Metrobus Leyland Olympian

In the period before the sell off of the main business units, London saw operation by several private companies who gained tenders for routes. Many of these either ceased trading, or were ultimately purchased by large groups, some of which also bought some of the ex-London Buses units. Below is a list of private operators, some of which still operate.

Hong Kong Airport Transfer And Vehicles Service

Affordable Airport Transfer Service

For many people, employing an airport car service--be it a taxi, town car, or even shuttle--seems like a foreign concept. Many of us are used to either taking care of our own travel needs or calling on friends to drop us off or pick us up. While these two options are certainly wonderful, they don't work in every situation. They also may not be the best way to start or end your journey in terms of making the best use of your time, and keeping your stress level to a minimum. Even if you decide to stick with the DIY travel style, you should know that there are affordable and efficient airport travel alternatives available to you should you choose to employ them.As anyone who has ever been to an airport knows, taxis are a frequently used mode of transportation for either leaving or arriving at the airport. If you are traveling to the airport, making an appointment with a taxi service for pickup from your home can be a huge help. When you make a reservation for a taxi, they will be able to calculate how much time to allow for travel from your address, and may often even offer a flat fee rate for airport travel. If you (or someone you're making a reservation for, such as a boss or a client) prefer to travel in a bit more style, you can also look into a car service as a transportation option. This gives you the same benefits of a taxi, but with more class and individual attention.If you are able to coordinate your own airport travel without difficulty, or if you simply feel more comfortable handling it on your own, there's no reason not to. If, on the other hand, employing a taxi, town car, or shuttle to assist you in getting to or from the airport would simplify your travel and make it less stressful, you may want to consider employing such a service to help you with your travel needs.

Airport Transportation Seattle Cost

https://www.gloviz.co.za/river-club/

Gloviz Have Airport Transfer List

Airport Shuttle Transfers Roodepoort

For safety and for environmental considerations Airport Shuttle Transfers in Roodepoort , most airports are built far away from cities and other residential areas. This poses an issue of traveling to and from the airport. People need transportation to the airfield when they are flying out and need to reach the airfield in time to catch their flight. Likewise, Cheap Airport Taxi after landing at the airfield from a flight, transport from the airfield to the city is required. Both the issues are solved with private operators operating lax airfield car services.Transportation utilities provide luxury car services to and from the airport.

Best Airport Taxi Service

These are mainly chauffeur driven cars, for which travelers may book reservations online. This facility comes as a great advantage to the commuter. With an online reservation system, the traveler is confident that he will be picked up from his hotel, office or home by a cab and taken to the airport right on-time to catch his flight, the service being guaranteed.Most transportation utilities track national and international flights. Therefore, the commuter may rest assured that the transportation from the aerodrome will be available and waiting for him, even if the flight arrives late into the night.

Airport Transfer Service Near Me

The traveler no longer has to depend on rented cars and driving them through rush-hour traffic. After the long journey by flight, Airport Cab he could take the luxurious, relaxing ride to his hotel, home or office.They have professional chauffeurs who have been trained to accommodate customer needs. They possess the required expertise and knowledge to conduct the traveler to and from the destination. They know the city roads like the back of their hands and can help the traveler reach his destination on time, even if the normal city roads are choked with traffic.

Airport Travel: Self Transportation Versus Taxi, Car, or Airport Shuttle Services

Transportation To Airport Cost

Airport car service providers value the relationship with their customers and strive to maintain the required professionalism that is expected from such executive luxury service. These smart luxury car services are hard to forget once their utility has been realized.

Airport Shuttle Transfers in Roodepoort ?

Airport Car Service Cost First London & London General AEC Routemasters on The Strand

The privatisation of London bus services was the process of the transfer of operation of London Buses from public bodies to private companies.

For half a century, operation of London bus services for public transport was under the direct control of a number of entities known as London Transport. The London Regional Transport Act 1984 resulted in London Regional Transport taking control of London's bus routes, with the operation divested in stand alone companies that were privatised in 1994/95.

Since then, direct provision of bus services in London has been run by private companies, although Transport for London did operate its own company, East Thames Buses between 1999 and 2009.

Unlike those in the rest of the United Kingdom, the bus services in London, although still ultimately privatised, were not deregulated to the same extent. In London, details of routes, fares and services levels were still specified by public bodies, with the right to run the services contracted to private companies on a tendered basis.

The privatised period produced for the first time buses in London painted in different schemes from the traditional red. This ceased following a 1997 edict that London buses be 80% red.

London Buses MCW Metrobus at Piccadilly Circus in October 1987

On 29 June 1984, in the general move towards deregulation, responsibility for running London bus services transferred from the last public body running London's buses, the Greater London Council to London Regional Transport under the London Regional Transport Act 1984. This Act required arm's-length subsidiaries to be established to oversee operation of bus services, and on 29 March 1985 London Buses Limited[1] was incorporated.[2]

Initially, bus livery continued to be all-over red with a simple solid white roundel, but in 1987 this livery was revised with the addition of a grey skirt and a white mid-level relief line; in the same year a modified red and yellow roundel, with the name 'London Buses' in capitals, was introduced.[3]

Grey-Green Alexander bodied Volvo Citybus as used on route 24

Under the 1984 Act, London bus services were to be tendered. The first round of tendering took place in the summer of 1985, bringing the first private operator into the market, in the form of London Buslines on route 81. By 1988 Boro'line Maidstone, Grey-Green and Metrobus were also operating numerous London routes.[4]

Controversially, these operators were allowed to operate buses in liveries other than standard red, meaning that for the first time it was possible for non-red buses to run into the centre of London, such as those on high-profile route 24 operated by Grey-Green. The only requirement was to display the London Transport roundel on the bus, to designate a London Transport tendered service. Ironically, several of the new private entrants were descendants of London Transport's former 'green' buses division, which operated outer London services that were passed to the National Bus Company's control as London Country Bus Services, in 1969.

The private competition was not without controversy, with objections to non-red buses leading to an edict in 1997 specifying 80% red liveries. The tendering also caused problems with several operators needing to hire buses due to late delivery of new buses for newly won routes.

One such controversial route was the arrangements for tendering route 60 which was initially awarded to Capital Logistics. Difficulties in setting up the route eventually saw operation by eight different operators and 10 different bus types in a short space of time, before the route finally gained a stable arrangement. [5]

The collapse of Harris Bus in December 1999, led to London Transport forming East Thames Buses as an arm's-length company to provide temporary operation of the routes. It was retained by the new Transport for London authority, to tender for routes itself until sold in October 2009 to the Go-Ahead Group.[6][7]

London Forest AEC Routemaster in 1991 London Northern Leyland Titan in 1992 CentreWest Challenger Alexander bodied Mercedes-Benz

On 1 April 1989 London Buses was divided into 12 business units, in preparation for sell-off. The companies were created along geographic lines, with all but Westlink having routes running into Central London. The division names and a small graphic device were added to the buses, in white. An exception to this was the Westlink unit, which received a new livery altogether. Some of the names chosen were drawn from the pre London Transport era, namely London General Omnibus Company and London United Tramways.

The separate business units created were:

Unlike the other units, Centrewest quickly branded its buses into separate groups, in the main removing the London Buses roundel in favour of various gold designs, with just the central services remaining in a slightly altered roundel based scheme. The group brands were: Challenger, Ealing Buses, Gold Arrow, Uxbridge Buses, Hillingdon local service and Orpington Buses.

Preserved Bexleybus Leyland Titan

During this time of separate business unit operation by London Buses, many new bus types were also being introduced, notably the Dennis Dart midibus as well as numerous minibuses. Several of these new vehicles received specialist branding from normal unit liveries, such as:

In the new era of private tendering, in an effort to compete with the new private operators entering the market, London Buses set up some low cost units to compete for tenders, painted in non-red liveries. The most notable were Harrow Buses[21] and Bexleybus, tendering for routes in the Harrow and Bexleyheath areas respectively.

These units were not overly successful, due to unreliable service, and industrial disputes due to lower pay rates than for the main London units. Their routes were quickly surrendered to other units or private operators.

Between September 1994 and January 1995, the separate London Buses business units were sold off. Competition rules restricted the number of units that could be bought by one group. All the units were sold either to their management or employees, or to one of the emerging national bus groups that had been growing through acquisition of deregulated companies in the rest of the UK. The exception was London Northern, which was bought by MTL, itself an expanding company formed from the privatisation of the Merseyside Passenger Transport Executive bus company.

Following sell-off, the new operators introduced new liveries, logos and trading names to many of the business units. Initially some buses appeared in liveries other than red, but an edict that all buses be 80% red saw this reversed from 1997. Some companies having been renamed, have since resumed their original identities.

The only unit not to be sold off was London Forest, which was wound up in the autumn of 1991 following poor financial performance and industrial action; its operating area was subsequently taken up by East London and Leaside Buses, although 11 of its routes in the Walthamstow area passed to private operators Capital Citybus, Thamesway Buses and County Bus.

The sell-off of the units proceeded as follows:

Capital Citybus Northern Counties bodied Leyland Olympian at Chingford station in June 1999 Centra Alexander Royale bodied Volvo Olympian Kentish Bus AEC Routemaster in July 1993 London & Country Leyland Lynx in Purley in May 1993 London Traveller East Lancs Spryte bodied Volvo B6BLE in August 1999 Preserved Metrobus Leyland Olympian

In the period before the sell off of the main business units, London saw operation by several private companies who gained tenders for routes. Many of these either ceased trading, or were ultimately purchased by large groups, some of which also bought some of the ex-London Buses units. Below is a list of private operators, some of which still operate.

Share taxi

Airport Shuttle Service Price

For safety and for environmental considerations, most airports are built far away from cities and other residential areas. This poses an issue of traveling to and from the airport. People need transportation to the airfield when they are flying out and need to reach the airfield in time to catch their flight. Likewise, after landing at the airfield from a flight, transport from the airfield to the city is required. Both the issues are solved with private operators operating lax airfield car services.Transportation utilities provide luxury car services to and from the airport. These are mainly chauffeur driven cars, for which travelers may book reservations online. This facility comes as a great advantage to the commuter. With an online reservation system, the traveler is confident that he will be picked up from his hotel, office or home by a cab and taken to the airport right on-time to catch his flight, the service being guaranteed.Most transportation utilities track national and international flights. Therefore, the commuter may rest assured that the transportation from the aerodrome will be available and waiting for him, even if the flight arrives late into the night. The traveler no longer has to depend on rented cars and driving them through rush-hour traffic. After the long journey by flight, he could take the luxurious, relaxing ride to his hotel, home or office.They have professional chauffeurs who have been trained to accommodate customer needs. They possess the required expertise and knowledge to conduct the traveler to and from the destination. They know the city roads like the back of their hands and can help the traveler reach his destination on time, even if the normal city roads are choked with traffic.Airport car service providers value the relationship with their customers and strive to maintain the required professionalism that is expected from such executive luxury service. These smart luxury car services are hard to forget once their utility has been realized.

Airport Transportation Seattle Cost

https://www.gloviz.co.za/river-club/

Gloviz Have Airport Transfer List

Private Airport Transfers Roodepoort

For safety and for environmental considerations Private Airport Transfers in Roodepoort , most airports are built far away from cities and other residential areas. This poses an issue of traveling to and from the airport. People need transportation to the airfield when they are flying out and need to reach the airfield in time to catch their flight. Likewise, Find Local Airport Transportation Service after landing at the airfield from a flight, transport from the airfield to the city is required. Both the issues are solved with private operators operating lax airfield car services.Transportation utilities provide luxury car services to and from the airport.

Airport Taxi Service Costs

These are mainly chauffeur driven cars, for which travelers may book reservations online. This facility comes as a great advantage to the commuter. With an online reservation system, the traveler is confident that he will be picked up from his hotel, office or home by a cab and taken to the airport right on-time to catch his flight, the service being guaranteed.Most transportation utilities track national and international flights. Therefore, the commuter may rest assured that the transportation from the aerodrome will be available and waiting for him, even if the flight arrives late into the night.

Airport Transportation Seattle Cost

The traveler no longer has to depend on rented cars and driving them through rush-hour traffic. After the long journey by flight, Taxi Service Orlando Fl he could take the luxurious, relaxing ride to his hotel, home or office.They have professional chauffeurs who have been trained to accommodate customer needs. They possess the required expertise and knowledge to conduct the traveler to and from the destination. They know the city roads like the back of their hands and can help the traveler reach his destination on time, even if the normal city roads are choked with traffic.

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Free public transport, often called fare free public transit or zero-fare public transport, refers to public transport funded in full by means other than collecting fares from passengers. It may be funded by national, regional or local government through taxation or by commercial sponsorship by businesses. The concept of "free-ness" is one that may take other forms, such as no-fare access via a card which may or may not be paid in its entirety by the user.

Tallinn, capital city of Estonia with more than 420,000 inhabitants, and several mid-size European cities and many smaller towns around the world have converted their public transportation networks to zero-fare. The city of Hasselt in Belgium is a notable example: fares were abolished in 1997 and ridership was as much as "13 times higher" by 2006.[1]

See list below.

Local zero-fare shuttles or inner-city loops are far more common than citywide systems. They often use buses or trams. These may be set up by a city government to ease bottlenecks or fill short gaps in the transport network.

See List of free public transport routes for a list of zero-fare routes within wider (fare-paying) networks

Zero-fare transport is often operated as part of the services offered within a public facility, such as a hospital or university campus shuttle or an airport inter-terminal shuttle.

Some zero-fare services may be built to avoid the need for large transport construction. Port cities where shipping would require very high bridges might provide zero-fare ferries instead. These are free at the point of use, just as the use of a bridge might have been. Machinery installed within a building or shopping centre can be seen as 'zero-fare transport': elevators, escalators and moving sidewalks are often provided by property owners and funded through the sales of goods and services. Community bicycle programs, providing free bicycles for short-term public use could be thought of as zero-fare transport.

A common example of zero-fare transport is student transport, where students travelling to or from school do not need to pay. A notable example is the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, which provides much of the funding to operate the Stevens Point Transit system. All students at the university can use any of the four citywide campus routes and the other four bus routes throughout the city free of charge. The university also funds two late night bus routes to serve the downtown free of charge with a goal of cutting down drunk driving.

In some regions transport is free because the revenues are lower that expenses from fare collection is already partially paid by government or company or service (for example BMO railway road in Moscow, most part of is used to as service transport and officially pick up passengers).

Many large amusement parks will have trams servicing large parking lots or distant areas. Disneyland in Anaheim, California, runs a tram from its entrance, across the parking lot, and across the street to its hotel as well as the bus stop for Orange County and Los Angeles local transit buses. Six Flags Magic Mountain in Valencia, California, provides tram service throughout its parking lot.

Dubai in the UAE, has just announced it will offer free bus services for a short period of time and it will only be on some days [2]

Transport operators can benefit from faster boarding and shorter dwell times, allowing faster timetabling of services. Although some of these benefits can be achieved in other ways, such as off-vehicle ticket sales and modern types of electronic fare collection, zero-fare transport avoids equipment and personnel costs.

Passenger aggression may be reduced. In 2008 bus drivers of Société des Transports Automobiles (STA) in Essonne held strikes demanding zero-fare transport for this reason. They claim that 90% of the aggression is related to refusal to pay the fare.[3]

Some zero-fare transport services are funded by private businesses (such as the merchants in a shopping mall) in the hope that doing so will increase sales or other revenue from increased foot traffic or ease of travel. Employers often operate free shuttles as a benefit to their employees, or as part of a congestion mitigation agreement with a local government.

Zero-fare transport can make the system more accessible and fair for low-income residents. Other benefits are the same as those attributed to public transport generally:

Global benefits of zero-fare transport are also the same as those attributed to public transport generally. If use of personal cars is discouraged, zero-fare public transport could mitigate the problems of global warming and oil depletion.

Several large U.S. municipalities have attempted zero-fare systems, but many of these implementations have been judged unsuccessful by policy-makers. A 2002 National Center for Transportation Research report suggests that, while transit ridership does tend to increase, there are also some disadvantages:[4]

This U.S. report suggests that, while ridership does increase overall, the goal of enticing drivers to take transit instead of driving is not necessarily met: because fare-free systems tend to attract a certain number of "problem riders", zero-fare systems may have the unintended effect of convincing some 'premium' riders to go back to driving their cars. It should be kept in mind that this was a study that only looked at U.S. cities, and the author's conclusions may be less applicable in other countries that have better social safety nets and less crime than the large U.S. cities studied.[4]

For local and/or limited services, see List of free public transport routes

Free public transport creates the perception of a no-cost service, just as car drivers commonly perceive no cost to deciding to take their car somewhere. The catch of the car-based system is that the car trip is not in fact free, but it is generally perceived as such.

Likewise, this perception of freeness is important for public transport, which is far more environmentally and resource efficient than own-car travel – which means in this case that full access to the system need not be altogether “free” for its users but that from a financial perspective it becomes (a) front-loaded and (b) affordable. The invariable fact of life of delivering any public service is that the money to do so must come from somewhere – and of “free” public transport that once the user has entered into some kind of “contract” with her or his city – for example a monthly or annual transit pass that opens up the public system to unlimited use for those who pay for it. Now, how they pay and how much will be part of the overall political/economic package (“contract”) of their community. In cities that offer such passes – as is the case to take but one example in most cities in France that since the mid-seventies have had their own Carte Orange – the remainder of the funds needed to pay for these services comes from other sources (mainly in this case from employers, local government).

Social-justice advocacy groups, such as the Swedish network Planka.nu, see zero-fare public transport as an effort in the redistribution of wealth.[40] It is also argued that transportation to and from work is a necessary part of the work day, and is essential to the employer in the managing of work hours. It is thus argued that financing of public transportation should fall to employers rather than private citizens.[41]

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