Shuttle Bus JHB

Airport Travel: Self Transportation Versus Taxi, Car, or Airport Shuttle Services or Shuttle Bus?

For many people Shuttle Bus  in Edenvale, employing an airport car service–be it a taxi, town car, or even shuttle–seems like a foreign concept. Many of us are used to either taking care of our own travel needs or calling on friends to drop us off or pick us up. While these two options are certainly wonderful, they don’t work in every situation. They also may not be the best way to start or end your journey in terms of making the best use of your time, and keeping your stress level to a minimum.

Airport Transfer Service Near Me

Even if you decide to stick with the DIY travel style, you should know that there are affordable and efficient airport travel alternatives available to you should you choose to employ them. As anyone who has ever been to an airport knows, taxis are a frequently used mode of transportation for either leaving or arriving at the airport. If you are traveling to the airport, making an appointment with a taxi service for pickup from your home can be a huge help. When you make a reservation for a taxi, they will be able to calculate how much time to allow for travel from your address, and may often even offer a flat fee rate for airport travel.

Airport Shuttle Service Price

If you (or someone you’re making a reservation for, such as a boss or a client) prefer to travel in a bit more style, you can also look into a car service as a transportation option. This gives you the same benefits of a taxi, but with more class and individual attention.If you are able to coordinate your own airport travel without difficulty, or if you simply feel more comfortable handling it on your own, there’s no reason not to. If, on the other hand, employing a taxi, town car, or shuttle to assist you in getting to or from the airport would simplify your travel and make it less stressful, you may want to consider employing such a service to help you with your travel needs.

Interesting Facts About Shuttle Bus in Southgate:

About Shuttle Bus in Southgate:

Affordable Transportation To Airport A car rapide share taxi in Senegal

A share taxi (also called shared taxi) is a mode of transport which falls between a taxicab and a bus. These vehicles for hire are typically smaller than buses and usually take passengers on a fixed or semi-fixed route without timetables, but instead departing when all seats are filled. They may stop anywhere to pick up or drop off their passengers. Often found in developing countries,[1] the vehicles used as share taxis range from four-seat cars to minibuses.[2] They are often owner-operated.

The UITP term "informal transport" includes share taxis.

A given share taxi route may start and finish in fixed central locations, and landmarks may serve as route names or route termini. In some African cities routes are run between formal termini,[3] where the majority[4] of passengers board.[3] In these places the share taxis wait for a full load of passengers prior to departing, and off-peak wait times may be in excess of an hour.[3]

In other places there may be no formal termini, with taxis simply congregating at a central location,[5] instead.

Even more-formal terminals may be little more than parking lots.[6]

In South Africa, its also referred to as a rank, which denotes an area specifically built, by a municipality or city, for taxi operators, where commuters may start and end their journey.[7]

Where they exist, share taxis provide service on set routes within and sometimes between towns.

After a share taxi has picked up passengers at its terminus, it proceeds along a semi-fixed route where the driver may determine the actual route within an area according to traffic condition. Drivers will stop anywhere to allow riders to disembark, and may sometimes do the same when prospective passengers want to ride.

While all share taxis share certain characteristics—and many regional versions exhibit peculiarities—some basic operational distinctions can be delineated.

Most share taxis are operated under one of two regimes. Some share taxis are operated by a company. For example, in Dakar there are company-owned fleets of hundred of car rapides.[8] In Soviet Union, share taxis, known as marshrutka, were operated by state-owned taxi parks.[9] There are also individual operators in many countries. In Africa, while there are company share taxis, individual owners are more common. Rarely owning more than two vehicles at a time, they will rent out a minibus to operators, who pay fuel and other running costs, and keep revenue.[8]

In some places, like some African cities and also Hong Kong, share taxi minibuses are overseen by syndicates, unions, or route associations.[10] These groups often function in the absence of a regulatory environment[3] and may collect dues or fees from drivers[11] (such as per-use terminal payments,[12] sometimes illegally), set routes,[12] manage terminals, and fix fares.[3] Terminal management may include ensuring each vehicle leaves with a full load of passengers.[3][12]

Because the syndicates represent owners, their regulatory efforts tend to favor operators rather than passengers,[12] and the very termini syndicates upkeep can cost delays and money for passengers as well as forcing them to disembark at inconvenient locations, in a phenomenon called "terminal constraint".[13]

In Africa, regulation is mainly something that pertains to the vehicle itself[14] not its operator[14] or its mode of operation.[citation needed]

In Kenya, regulation does extend to operators[15][16] and mode of operation (such as routes used)[citation needed] as well as the vehicle[17]

As of 2008, African minibuses are difficult to tax,[11] and may operate in a "regulatory vacuum" perhaps because their existence is not part of a government scheme, but is simply a market response to a growing demand for such services.[8] Route syndicates[18] and operator's associations[13] often exercise unrestricted control, and existing rules may see little enforcement.[18]

Share taxi is a unique mode of transport independent of vehicle type. Minibuses,[11] midibuses, covered pickup trucks, station wagons, and lorries see use as share taxis.

Certain vehicle types may be better-suited to current condition than others. In many traffic-choked, sprawling, and low-density African cities minibuses profit.[11]

In Israel they were mostly the largest model of Mercedes, owned generally by Arabs, and very efficient, having space for 7-8 people, and having loosely fixed routes, dropping a passenger either at a specific terminus or going a little out of way to facilitate the passenger.

While carrying different names and distinguished by regional peculiarities, the share taxi is an everyday feature of life in many places throughout the world.

An Angkot in Bandung, West Java A three-wheeler Bemo in Jakarta. It also serves as a share taxi like Angkots

Angkutan Kota abbreviated Angkot or Mikrolet are share taxis in Indonesia widely operating throughout the country usually with Mini vans. In some places there are also three-wheelers which are called Bemo (such as autorickshaws based on the Daihatsu Midget). The older version of Angkot is called Oplet. The name of this transportation differs from each different province or area in the country. In Jakarta, it is called Angkot, in other parts such as in Sulawesi, the term Mikrolet shortened Mikro is more widely used especially in Manado. In Makassar it is called "Pete-Pete", in Malang it is called "Angkota", in Medan it is called "Sudako".

It runs accordingly with its exact routes and passengers can stop the van anywhere according to its destination, and is not required to stop at a bus stop or station.

In some towns in Northern Ireland, notably certain districts in Ballymena, Belfast, Derry and Newry, share taxi services operate using Hackney carriages and are called black taxis. These services developed during The Troubles as public bus services were often interrupted due to street rioting. Taxi collectives are closely linked with political groups – those operating in Catholic areas with Sinn Féin, those in Protestant areas with loyalist paramilitaries and their political wings.

Typically, fares approximate to those of Translink operated bus services on the same route. Service frequencies are typically higher than on bus services, especially at peak times, although limited capacities mean that passengers living close to the termini may find it difficult to find a black taxi with seats available in the rush hour.

A Toyota Corolla estate bush taxi

Three main vehicle types are used as bush taxis (French taxi brousse, Mandinka tanka tanka): the station wagon, the minibus, and the lorry. Many are previously owned vehicles imported from Europe or Japan; others are assembled from parts in regional centres such as Nigeria or Kenya. The original seating of the vehicles is usually stripped out in order to fit benches with more passenger space. In addition, more people generally sit on each bench than would be the case in more-developed countries. They are often in poor condition, though wealthier countries tend to have better-maintained vehicles.

In the past, most station-wagon bush taxis were modified 1980s-model Peugeot 504s. In some countries they are known as "five-seaters" or "seven-seaters" (French sept-place), but in fact, they may seat nine passengers or more in three rows of seats. Other models, such as the Peugeot 505 or the Toyota Corolla have since supplanted the 504 in some countries, and are gaining ground in others.

The bush taxi, a type of public light bus frequently used in West-Africa

Typically two passengers are seated on the front seat next to the driver, and four passengers in each of the two back rows. Sometimes, in particular on less-frequented routes, bush taxis are more crowded, and passengers might even sit on the roof or the boot. Bush taxis in wealthier countries tend to be less crowded. For example, in Nigeria bush taxis (of both the station wagon or minibus type) are called three-across or four-across according to the number of passengers seated in each row.

The minibus (a van-like vehicle seating 12 to 20 passengers; French minicar) is quickly becoming the most common type of bush taxi in West and Central Africa, especially for longer trips. Due to the vehicles' larger size, drivers often employ a helper who rides in the back of the vehicle and tells the driver when to stop to let people off, and helps load and unload baggage. Minibuses tend to travel slower than cars, and they take longer to fill up and to pass through police checkpoints. These vehicles generally charge more than standard buses but less than Peugeot-type bush taxis. Frequently used models in West-Africa are the Renault Super Goélette, the Saviem Super Goelette 2, and the Isuzu Kitamura minibus. The Goelette is also used frequently in Vietnam and Madagascar as a share taxi.[19]

Lorries are also used as bush taxis (French bâché): they are normal lorries (trucks) with benches along the sides of the bed for passengers. There is often a cover for the bed as well. Lorries are more robustly made (and give a rougher ride) than purpose-built passenger vehicles; routes over worse roads and to more remote areas are often serviced by lorries.

Carros Públicos (literally "Public Cars") are share taxis in the Dominican Republic[20] and Puerto Rico.[21]

In the Dominican Republic, these privately owned vehicles[22] run fixed routes[20][22] with no designated stops, and the ride is shared with other passengers.[20]

Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada advises against traveling in Dominican Republic carros públicos because doing so makes passengers targets for robbery, and because the taxis are known to, "disregard traffic laws, often resulting in serious accidents involving injuries and sometimes death."[23] The US Department of State also warns that using them is hazardous, as passengers often have their pockets picked, and are sometimes robbed by the drivers themselves.[22]

In Puerto Rico, carros públicos ply set routes with several passengers sharing the ride[24] and others picked up throughout the journey.[21]

The industry is regulated by the Puerto Rico Public Service Commission.[5]

While these cars do travel inter-city, they may not be available for longer, cross-island travel.[5] Stations may exist in cities, and Puerto Rican carros públicos may congregate in specific places around town.[5]

Minibus public transports in Rwanda may be called coaster buses,[25] share taxis, or twegerane.[10] The latter could easily be a word meaning "stuffed" or "full".[25]

As of 2011 in Kigali, Rwanda, syndicates include ATRACO and ONATRACOM,[10] but an independent transport authority is absent.[26]

Colectivos operated as share taxis from the late 1920s until the 1950s in Buenos Aires, Argentina when they were integrated into the public transportation system. Vehicles still known as colectivos operate throughout the country, but have long been indistinguishable from buses.[27]

Main article: Dala-dala A dala dala in the city of Dar es Salaam

Minivans (minibuses may be a more correct term here) are used as vehicles for hire and referred to as dala dala in Tanzania.[28] While dala dala may run fixed routes picking up passengers at central locations, they will also stop along the route to drop someone off or allow a prospective passenger to board.[28] Before minibuses became widely used, the typical dala dala was a pick-up truck with benches placed in the truck bed.[29]

In Dar es Salaam, publicly operated minibus service may also exist as of 2008.[10]

Usually run by both a driver and a conductor,[28] the latter is called a mpigadebe, literally meaning "a person who hits a debe" (a 4-gallon tin container used for transporting gasoline or water). The name is in reference to the fact that conductors are often hitting the roof and side of the van to attract customers and notify the driver when to leave the station.

These often-crowded[28] public transports have their routes allocated by a Tanzania transport regulator, Surface and Marine Transport Regulatory Authority (SUMATRA),[30] but syndicates also exist and include DARCOBOA.[10]

Play media Play media The danfo share taxi and molue minibuses are iconic of transport in Lagos, Nigeria.

In Nigeria, both minibuses (called danfo[31]) and midibuses (molue)[10] may be operated as share taxis. Such public transports may also be referred to as bolekaja, and many may bear slogans or sayings.[Thompson 1]

Lagos, Nigeria, has a transport-dedicated regulator, Lagos Metropolitan Area Transport Agency (LAMATA),[26] its remit most probably includes share taxi activity.[citation needed] Outside of Lagos, most major cities in Africa have similar systems of transport.[32]

Syndicates in Lagos may include National Union of Road and Transport Workers (NURTW).[10]

Karsan-built Peugeot J9 Premier dolmuş in Bodrum, Turkey

In Turkey and Turkish controlled Northern Cyprus dolmuş (pronounced "dolmush") are share taxis that run on set routes within and between cities.[33] Each of these cars or minibuses displays their particular route on signboards behind the windscreen.[33]

Some cities may only allow dolmuş to pick up and disembark passengers at designated stops, and terminals also exist.[33] The word derives from Turkish for "full" or "stuffed", as these share taxis depart from the terminal only when a sufficient number of passengers have boarded.[34] Visitors to Turkey have been surprised by the speed of dolmuş travel.[35]

These share taxis are also found in Turkish-controlled, Northern Cyprus under the same name.[34] Traveling intra and inter-city, the privately owned minibuses or aging Mercedes stretch limos are overseen by a governance institution; routes are leased and vehicles licensed.[34] Passengers board anywhere along the route (you may have to get the driver to stop if he doesn't honk at you) as well as at termini and official stations.[34] Dolmuş in Turkish-controlled, Northern Cyprus display their routes but don't follow timetables. Instead, they simply appear frequently.[34]

Those in Kinshasa, DRC, (or perhaps just the Kongo people) may call share taxis fula fula meaning "quick quick".[Thompson 2]

There was no independent transport authority in the city of Kinshasa as of 2008.[26]

In Côte d'Ivoire, gbaka are a name for minibus public transports.[10]

The transport regulator in Abidjan, CI, is Agence de Gestion des Transports Urbains[26] or AGETU.[18]

As of 2008, Abidjan public transport was serviced by large buses as well as minibuses.[36]

Syndicates include UPETCA, SNTMVCI.[10]

In Morocco, grands taxis are the name for large, unmetered, shared taxicabs used for transportation between towns.[37] Grands taxis are generally old full-size Mercedes-Benz sedans, and seat six or more passengers.[37]

A typical jeepney Main article: Jeepney

The most popular means of public transportation in the Philippines as of 2007,[38] jeepneys were originally made out of US military jeeps left over from World War II[39] and are known for their color and flamboyant decoration.[38] Today the jeepneys are built by local body shops from a combination of prefabricated elements (from handful Filipino manufacturers) and improvisation and in most cases equipped with "surplus" or used Japanese SUV or light truck engines, drive train, suspension and steering components (from recycled vehicles in Japan).

They have not changed much since their post-war creation, even in the face of an increased access to pre-made vehicles, such as minibuses.[citation needed]

Jeepneys have the entrance on the back, and there is space for two people beside the driver (or more if they are small). The back of the Jeepney is equipped with two long bench seats along the sides and the people seated closest to the driver are responsible for passing the fare of new passengers forward to the driver and the change back to the passenger. The start and end point of the Jeepney route is often a Jeepney terminal, where there is a queue system so only one Jeepney plying a particular route is filled at a time, and where a person helps the driver to collect fares and fill the vehicles with people, usually to more than comfortable capacity.

Preferring to leave only when full and only stop for a crowd of potential passengers,[40] riders can nonetheless disembark at any time;[41] and while jeepneys ply fixed routes,[38] these may be subject to change over time.[42] New ones may need approval from a Philippine transport regulator.[43] Jeepney stations do exist.[44]

Main article: Dollar van

Jitney is an American English term that originally referred to a vehicle for hire intermediate between a taxi and a bus.[45] They are generally small-capacity vehicles that follow a rough service route, but can go slightly out of their way to pick up and drop off passengers. In many US cities (e.g. Pittsburgh and Detroit), the term jitney refers to an unlicensed taxi cab.

The name comes from an archaic, colloquial term for a five-cent piece in the US (the nickel). The common fare for the service when it first came into use was five cents, so the "five-cent cab" or "jitney cab" came to be known for the price charged.

In Rhode Island a jitney license plate is used for all public passenger buses, even for larger ones.

Jitney in Atlantic City, United States in 2008

While jitneys became fairly common in many other countries, such as the Philippines, they first appeared in the US and Canada. The first US jitneys ran in 1914 in Los Angeles, California. By 1915, there were 62,000 nationwide. Local regulations, demanded by streetcar companies, killed the jitney in most places. By the end of 1916, only 6,000 jitneys remained.[46] Similarly, in Vancouver, Canada, in the 1920s, jitneys competed directly with the streetcar monopoly operating along the same routes as the streetcars, but jitneys were charging lower fares.[47] Operators were referred to as "jitney men." They were so successful that the city government banned them at the request of the streetcar operators.

Since the 1973 oil crisis (as well as the mid-20th-century decline in transit service), jitneys have reappeared in some areas of the US, particularly in inner city areas once served by streetcars and private buses. An increase in bus fares usually leads to a significant rise in jitney usage. Liberalization of jitneys is often encouraged by libertarian urban economists, such as University of Chicago's Richard Epstein, Rutgers' James Dunn, and USC's Peter Gordon, as a more "market-friendly" alternative to public transportation. Concerns over fares, insurance liabilities, and passenger safety have kept legislative support for jitneys decidedly tepid. Nevertheless, in New York City and northern New Jersey, jitneys (known as "dollar vans" because of their original price) are regulated.

Miami has the country's most comprehensive jitney network, due to Caribbean influence. In Atlanta jitneys run along Buford Highway.

In Atlantic City the ACJA operates a jitney service that travels the main strip of casinos. One of the routes also services the new cluster of casinos west of Atlantic City proper.

In 2009, the Houston Waves, Houston's first jitney service in 17 years, started running. It has expanded into a network of buses operating within Loop 610 and to all special event venues in Houston.

The term kia kia may be used in Yorùbáland to refer to minibus public transports, and means "quick quick".[Thompson 1]

Share taxis in Estonia are mostly found in Tallinn, the capital.[citation needed] Called liinitakso, marsruuttakso, taksobuss or mikroautobuss depending on the language spoken, these minibuses run fixed routes and allow passengers to disembark at any time.[48]

Share taxis in Tunisia are called louage and follow fixed or semi-fixed routes, departing from stations when full.[49] Usually minibuses or compact cars,[49] although some louage are station wagons,[50] passengers may board and disembark at any point during travel.[49]

They run between towns and within cities.[49]

Four marshrutkas in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Main article: Marshrutka

Marshrutka[1][51] or marshrutnoe taksi[52] are share taxis found in Eastern Europe[1][51] and the republics of the former Soviet Union.[53] Usually vans,[1] they drive along set routes, usually depart only when all seats are filled,[51][53] and may have higher fares than buses.[1][53] Passengers can board a marshrutka anywhere along its route if there are seats available.[51][53]

As fares are usually paid before the marshrutka leaves,[53][54] which seat you choose can have consequences. Riders nearer the driver are responsible for handing up the other passengers' fares and passing back change.[53][54]

In Lithuania, share taxis are called maršrutinis taksi.

Main article: Matatu

In Kenya, Uganda, and neighboring nations[55][56][57] matatu are privately owned[58] minibuses,[17] although pick-up trucks were in the past pressed into service[55] as these East African public transports whose decoration often features portraits of the famous.[16][59] Slogans and sayings also appear,[60] some religious.[59][60] In addition to a driver, matatu may be staffed by a tout,[58] conductor,[15][61][62] or porter.[63]

They may ply set routes,[64] display this route,[61] run from termini,[17][65] run both inter and intra-city,[64][66] and may stop along said route to purchase or collect money from passengers.

As of 1999, matatu could have been the only form of public transport in Nairobi, Kenya,[58] but this may not have been the case in 2006[64] and 2008.[67] As of 2008, Kampala, Uganda, may only be serviced by minibuses.[67]

The name is a Swahili colloquialism,[56] and were it convenient,[citation needed] passengers could even pay for their journeys via cell phone.[68] The name is literally a conjugation of the word "three", and derives from their original price, three shillings "mashilingi matatu".

In Kenya, this industry is regulated,[58] and such minibuses must, by law, be fitted with seatbelts[17] and speed governors.[15][17] Present regulation may not be sufficient deterrent to prevent small infractions[61] as even decoration may be prohibited.[15] Kenya has one of the "most extensive regulatory controls to market entry",[13] and a matatu worker can be pulled from the streets simply for sporting too loud a shirt.[16]

As of 2008, Kampala, Uganda, has no independent transport authority,[26] but transport is authorised by Kampala Capital city Authority (KCCA).[3] In Kampala the informal vehicles are called taxis. [4]

Egyptian share cabs are generally known as micro-bus (mekrobass ميكروباص or mašrūʿ مشروع, "project"; plural mekrobassāt ميكروباصات or mašarīʿ مشاريع). The second name is used by Alexandrians.

Micro-buses are licensed by each governorate as taxicabs, and are generally operated privately by their drivers. Although each governorate attempts to maintain a consistent paint scheme for them, in practice the color of them varies wildly, as the "consistent" schemes have changed from time to time and many drivers have not bothered to repaint their cars.

Rates vary depending on distance traveled, although these rates are generally well known to those riding the micro-bus. The fares also depend on the city. Riders can typically hail micro-buses from any point along the route, often with well-established hand signals indicating the prospective rider's destination, although certain areas tend to be well-known micro-bus stops.

Like the Eastern European marshrutka, a typical micro-bus is a large van, most often a Toyota HiAce or its Jinbei equivalent, the Haise, and the latter is produced by the Bavarian Auto Manufacturing Group in 6th of October City in Egypt. Smaller vans and larger small buses are also used.

Sharing ajans in Tehran

In Iran a share taxi is usually called "taxi", while a non-share is called "ajans"/اژانس, pronounced [aʒans]. Four passengers share a taxi and sometimes there is no terminus and they wait in the street side and blare their destination to all taxies until one of them stops. These are regular taxies but if somebody wants to get a non-share taxi he can call for an ajans (taxi service) for himself or wait in the street side and say 'DARBAST' (which means non-share). It means he is not interested in sharing the taxi and is consequently willing to pay more for the privilege.

Minibuses, in the past years, with a capacity of 18 passengers, and nowadays van taxies, with a capacity of 10 passengers are other kinds of share transport in Iran.[69]

Minibus taxis in Ethiopia are one of the most important modes of transport in big cities like Addis Ababa. They are preferred by the majority of the populace over public buses and more-traditional taxicabs because they are generally cheap, operate on diverse routes, and are available in abundance. All minibus taxis in Ethiopia have a standard blue-and-white coloring scheme, much like the yellow color of New York taxis except it isn't yellow. Minibus taxis are usually Toyota Hiaces, frequent the streets. They typically can carry 11 passengers, but will always have room for another until that is no longer the case. The minibus driver has a crew member called a weyala, and his job is to collect the fare from passengers.

In 2008, publicly operated public transport was available in Addis Ababa in addition to that provided by the minibuses.[67] A fleet of 350 large buses may operate for this purpose,[citation needed] as such a number does exist.[36] Also as of 2008, the city lacks an independent transport authority,[26] but some regulation, such as that controlling market entry, does exist.[13]

Route syndicates may be a presence but are described as "various".[10]

Cape Town minibus taxi rank See also: Taxi wars in South Africa

Over 60% of South African commuters use shared minibus taxis (16 seater commuter buses).

Many of these vehicles are unsafe and not roadworthy, and often dangerously overloaded.[citation needed]

Prior to 1987, the taxi industry in South Africa was highly regulated and controlled.[citation needed] Black taxi operators were declined permits in the Apartheid era and all minibus taxi operations were, by their very nature, illegal.

Post 1987, the industry was rapidly deregulated, leading to an influx of new minibus taxi operators, keen to make money off the high demand for this service. Taxi operators banded together to form local and national associations. Because the industry was largely unregulated and the official regulating bodies corrupt,[citation needed] these associations soon engaged in anti-competitive price fixing and exhibited gangster tactics – including the hiring of hit-men and all-out gang warfare.[70] During the height of the conflict, it was not uncommon for taxi drivers to carry shotguns and AK-47s to simply shoot rival taxi drivers and their passengers on sight.[citation needed]

Currently the South African Government is attempting to formalize and re-regulate the out-of-control minibus taxi industry. Along with new legislation, the government has instituted a 7-year recapitalization scheme to replace the old and unroadworthy vehicles with new 18- and 35-seater minibuses. These new minibus taxis carry the South African flag on the side and are notably more spacious and safe.

A public light bus (left) and a double-decker bus (right) in Hong Kong. Main article: Public light bus

Public light buses (Chinese: 公共小型巴士), also known as minibus or maxicab (Chinese: 小巴), run the length and breadth of Hong Kong, through areas which the standard bus lines cannot or do not reach as frequently, quickly or directly.

Typically offering a faster and more efficient transportation solution due to their small size, limited carrying capacity, frequency and diverse range of routes, although they are generally slightly more expensive than standard buses, minibuses carry a maximum of 16 seated passengers. Standing passengers are not allowed.

There are two types of public light minibus, green and red. Both types have a cream-coloured body, the distinguishing feature being the colour of the external roof, and the type of service that the colour denotes: green is like regular transit bus with fixed number, route, schedule and fare (but generally not fixed stops); red is a shared taxi, operating on semi-fixed route unregulated, with the driver waiting for enough passengers to justify leaving, as his income depends on the revenue.

In Guatemala, ruleteros, minibus share taxis, pick up and discharge passengers along major streets.[71][72]

In New Zealand the first widespread motor vehicle services were shared taxi services termed service cars; a significant early provider was Aard, operating elongated Hudson Super-Six Coaches.[73] By 1930 there were 597 service cars.[74] Aard was taken over by New Zealand Railways Road Services in 1928.[73] Shared taxis in New Zealand nowadays are referred to as Shuttles or Shuttle vans (see below).

In Cyprus, there are privately owned share taxis that travel to set destinations and board additional passengers en route called service taxis.[75]

Shared taxis–and they are known by that exact name–have been operating in Mumbai, India, since the early 1970s. These are more like a point-to-point service that operates only during the peak hours than other share taxis. During off-peak hours, they ply just like the regular taxis; they can be hailed anywhere on the roads, and passengers are charged by the meter.

But during peak hours several of them will operate as shared taxis, taking a full cab load of passengers to a more or less common destination. The pick-up points for these taxis are fixed, and are marked by a sign saying "shared taxis" and the cabs will line up at this point during peak hours.

They display the general destination they are headed for on their windscreens, and passengers just get in and wait for the cab to fill up. As soon as this happens–which takes less than a few minutes–the cab moves off. Fares are a fixed amount and are far lower than the metered fare to the same destination but higher than a bus or train fare.

Share jeeps are a common form of transportation in the Himalayas, the North Eastern States and elsewhere.[76]

Sherut taxis

Sherut (pl. moniot sherut) is a Hebrew word meaning "service". Also referring to vans[77][78][79] that serve as share taxis in Israel, these can be picked up from sherut stations.[77] They follow fixed routes[77][78] (sometimes the same routes as public transport buses[77]), leave when full,[77][80] and will only disembark passengers along the route.[77] Moniyot sherut operate both inter[78][81] and intra-city.[78] Payment is often done by passing money to the driver in a "human chain" formed by the passengers seated before. The change (and the receipt, when requested) are returned to the person who paid by the same means. In intra-city routes, where they compete with official buses, the drivers usually coordinate their travel by radio so that they can arrive at the bus station just before public transport buses and take the most passengers.

Called "ser-vees" (service taxi) by Palestinians, in the West Bank vans are replaced by minibuses, for a while "Ford Transit" model was predominant in the Palestinian occupied territories,[82] hence the names "Ford" and "Fordat"(pl) are used to describe minibuses of various makes, which replaced aging Mercedes sedans previously used widely,[78] etc.

A shuttle van service to Dunedin International Airport picks up a passenger at Dunedin Railway Station in New Zealand

Shared buses or vans are available in many more developed countries connecting frequent destinations, charging a fixed fee per passenger. The most common case is a connection between an airport and central city locations. These services are often known as shuttles. Such services usually use smaller vehicles than normal buses, and often operate on demand. An air traveller can contact the shuttle company by telephone or Internet, not necessarily in advance; the company will ensure that a shuttle is provided without unreasonable delay. The shuttle will typically connect one airport with several large hotels, or addresses in a specified area of the city. The shuttle offers much of the convenience of a taxi, although taking longer, at a price which is significantly lower for one or two passengers. Scheduled services between an airport and a hotel, usually operated by the hotel, are also called shuttles.

In many cases the shuttle operator takes the risk of there not being enough passengers to make the trip profitable; in others there is a minimum charge when there are not enough passengers.[83]

Usually there are regulations covering vehicles and drivers; for example in New Zealand under NZTA regulations, shuttles are only allowed to have up to eleven passenger seats, and the driver must have a passenger endorsement (P) on their drivers' licence.

Main article: Songthaew

Literally "two rows"[citation needed] a songthaew or song thaew[84] (Thai สองแถว, Lao: ສອງແຖວ [sɔ̌ːŋtʰíw]) is a passenger vehicle in Thailand[84] and Laos[85] adapted from a pick-up[85] or a larger truck and used as a share taxi. They are also known as baht buses.

In Mali, at least two words for share taxi may have common currency sotrama and dourouni.[10]

As of 2008, Bamako, Mali, has no independent transport authority,[26] but share taxi activity could fall under regulator Direction de la régulation et du contrôle du transport urbain (municipal) or DRCTU control.[18]

a Haitian tap tap Main article: Tap tap

Tap taps, gaily painted buses[86][87] or pick-up trucks,[87] and publiques, usually older saloon cars,[88] serve as share taxis in Haiti.

Tap taps are privately owned and beautifully decorated.[86] They follow fixed routes;[89] won't leave until filled with passengers;[87][89] and many feature wild colors, portraits of famous people, and intricate, hand-cut wooden window covers.[86] Often they are painted with religious names or slogans.[Thompson 3] Riders can disembark at any point in the journey.[87][89] Their name refers to "fast motion".[Thompson 4]

The publiques operate on fixed routes and pick up additional passengers all along the way.[88]

While saying not to use any form of public transport in Haiti, the Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada advises against tap tap travel especially.[90] The US State Department also warns travelers not to use tap taps, "because they are often overloaded, mechanically unsound, and driven unsafely."[91]

In Algeria, taxis collectifs ply fixed routes with their destination displayed.[92] Rides are shared with others who are picked up along the way,[93] and the taxi will leave only when it seats all the passengers it can.[94] While stations, set locations to board and disembark,[citation needed] exist,[95][96] prospective passengers flag down a taxis collectifs when they want a ride.[92]

Operating inter[97][98] and intra-city,[citation needed] taxis collectifs that travel between towns may be called interwilaya taxis.[99]

Along with all forms of public transport in Algeria, the Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada recommend against using these share taxis.[93] The Irish Department of Foreign Affairs asks that you use taxis recommended by a hotel.[100]

See also: Société de transport de Montréal and Réseau de transport de Longueuil § Shared taxi

In Quebec, share taxis or jitneys are called taxis collectifs[101] (in English "collective taxis"[102]) or transport collectif par taxi[103] (which may be translated in English as "taxibus"[104]) and are operated by subcontractors to the local transit authorities[104][105][106][107] on fixed routes.[citation needed]

In the case of the Montréal the fare is the same as local bus fare, but no cash and transfers are issued or accepted;[108] in case of the STL only bus passes.[105][109] The Réseau de transport de Longueuil accepts regular RTL tickets and all RTL and some Réseau de transport métropolitain TRAM passes.[110]

See also: Pesero and Combi Yellow Taxi Colectivo in Chile

Often share taxi routes in Mexico are ad hoc arrangements to fill in gaps in regular public transportation, and many operate inter-city as well as local routes. In many rural areas, they are the only public transportation.

In some cases truck/taxi combination vehicles have evolved to transport light goods as well as passengers. Heavily used share taxi routes often evolve into regulated microbus public transit routes, as has occurred in Mexico City and in Lima.

Taxis colectivos are also found in Perú, Chile, Guatemala, and Argentina, where they are most commonly referred to simply as colectivos, although in some places they have become essentially standard buses.[27]

Besides the conventional deeltaxi, there are treintaxis in some Dutch towns. Operated on behalf of the Netherlands Railways,[citation needed] they run to and from railway stations and the ride is shared with additional passengers picked up along the way.[111] Tickets can be purchased at railway ticket offices or from the cabdriver,[111] but treintaxis must be ordered by phone unless boarding at a railway station.[111]

In Ghana and neighboring countries, tro tro are privately owned[112][113][114] minibus vehicles for hire that travel fixed routes[114] leaving when filled to capacity.[112][113] While there are tro tro stations,[114][115][116] these share taxis can also be boarded anywhere along the route.[112][113][114]

Operated by a driver and a conductor, who collects money, shouts out the destination, and is called a "mate",[114][117] many are decorated with slogans and sayings,[117] often religious,[112] and few operate on Sundays.[113]

As of 2008, there is no independent transport authority in Accra, Ghana,[26] and the share taxi industry may be wholly unregulated.

Tro tro are used by 70% of Ghanaian commuters.[118] This popularity may be because in cities such as Accra have no public transportation system save for these small minibuses.[67]

Large buses also provide public transport in Accra, as of 2008.[36]

An informal means of transportation, in Ghana they are licensed by the government, but the industry is self-regulated.[114] In Accra, syndicates include GPRTU and PROTOA.[10]

Share taxis do exist in Cameroon, but as of 2008 minibuses cannot be used for this purpose, by law.[8] That same year, Douala, Cameroon, also was without an independent transport authority.[26]

In Ouagadougou, capital of Burkina Faso, the share taxi role is not filled by the traditional African minibus.[8]

In Athens, Greece most taxis were share taxis,[119] but since the country joined the EU this tradition started to dissappear.

In Saint Lucia, waychehs are a name for minibus public transports using Toyota HiAce.

Modern Paratransit services, also known as demand responsive transport systems in the UK, can provide shared transport services in situations where scheduled services are not viable. Traditionally these services had to be booked a day in advance, but are becoming increasingly responsive using modern communications systems with a central booking system accessed by phone or internet and instant communications with GPS tracked vehicles. Unlike scheduled services the vehicles need not operate on fixed routes of timetables, although they do often have constrained routes.

Some newer taxi share systems now use internet and mobile phone communications for booking and scheduling purposes, with the actual service provided by normal hackney carriage or Private Hire vehicles. Prospective passengers make bookings and supply destination details using SMS to a central server which aggregates these travel requests and creates packages of trips which are then communicated to drivers.

There are many operators of airport shuttle services between Airports and Hotels around the world that operate on flexible routing and timing to offer a service that is both cheaper than a sole-occupancy taxi and also often more convenient that other forms of public transport. The requirement to carry luggage offers an added incentive to use such services over scheduled transport which will normally require a walk from the drop-off location to the final destination. Services from these operators are starting to spread from airports to railway stations and to other locations.

Main article: Demand responsive transport

Some operators and/or governments around the world are now offering demand-based shared transport to residents in community with low ridership numbers, which could help maintain the existence of public transport. Operations are predefined according to bookings.

  1. ^ a b Tap-tap, fula-fula, kia-kia: The Haitian bus in Atlantic perspective. Thompson, Robert Farris. African Arts. Los Angeles: Spring 1996. Vol. 29, Iss. 2; p. 41.
  2. ^ Thompson, p. 39.
  3. ^ Thompson, pp. 37, 38, 44, 45.
  4. ^ Thompson, p. 36.

Shuttle Bus in Southgate

Private Airport Transfers Prices First London & London General AEC Routemasters on The Strand

The privatisation of London bus services was the process of the transfer of operation of London Buses from public bodies to private companies.

For half a century, operation of London bus services for public transport was under the direct control of a number of entities known as London Transport. The London Regional Transport Act 1984 resulted in London Regional Transport taking control of London's bus routes, with the operation divested in stand alone companies that were privatised in 1994/95.

Since then, direct provision of bus services in London has been run by private companies, although Transport for London did operate its own company, East Thames Buses between 1999 and 2009.

Unlike those in the rest of the United Kingdom, the bus services in London, although still ultimately privatised, were not deregulated to the same extent. In London, details of routes, fares and services levels were still specified by public bodies, with the right to run the services contracted to private companies on a tendered basis.

The privatised period produced for the first time buses in London painted in different schemes from the traditional red. This ceased following a 1997 edict that London buses be 80% red.

London Buses MCW Metrobus at Piccadilly Circus in October 1987

On 29 June 1984, in the general move towards deregulation, responsibility for running London bus services transferred from the last public body running London's buses, the Greater London Council to London Regional Transport under the London Regional Transport Act 1984. This Act required arm's-length subsidiaries to be established to oversee operation of bus services, and on 29 March 1985 London Buses Limited[1] was incorporated.[2]

Initially, bus livery continued to be all-over red with a simple solid white roundel, but in 1987 this livery was revised with the addition of a grey skirt and a white mid-level relief line; in the same year a modified red and yellow roundel, with the name 'London Buses' in capitals, was introduced.[3]

Grey-Green Alexander bodied Volvo Citybus as used on route 24

Under the 1984 Act, London bus services were to be tendered. The first round of tendering took place in the summer of 1985, bringing the first private operator into the market, in the form of London Buslines on route 81. By 1988 Boro'line Maidstone, Grey-Green and Metrobus were also operating numerous London routes.[4]

Controversially, these operators were allowed to operate buses in liveries other than standard red, meaning that for the first time it was possible for non-red buses to run into the centre of London, such as those on high-profile route 24 operated by Grey-Green. The only requirement was to display the London Transport roundel on the bus, to designate a London Transport tendered service. Ironically, several of the new private entrants were descendants of London Transport's former 'green' buses division, which operated outer London services that were passed to the National Bus Company's control as London Country Bus Services, in 1969.

The private competition was not without controversy, with objections to non-red buses leading to an edict in 1997 specifying 80% red liveries. The tendering also caused problems with several operators needing to hire buses due to late delivery of new buses for newly won routes.

One such controversial route was the arrangements for tendering route 60 which was initially awarded to Capital Logistics. Difficulties in setting up the route eventually saw operation by eight different operators and 10 different bus types in a short space of time, before the route finally gained a stable arrangement. [5]

The collapse of Harris Bus in December 1999, led to London Transport forming East Thames Buses as an arm's-length company to provide temporary operation of the routes. It was retained by the new Transport for London authority, to tender for routes itself until sold in October 2009 to the Go-Ahead Group.[6][7]

London Forest AEC Routemaster in 1991 London Northern Leyland Titan in 1992 CentreWest Challenger Alexander bodied Mercedes-Benz

On 1 April 1989 London Buses was divided into 12 business units, in preparation for sell-off. The companies were created along geographic lines, with all but Westlink having routes running into Central London. The division names and a small graphic device were added to the buses, in white. An exception to this was the Westlink unit, which received a new livery altogether. Some of the names chosen were drawn from the pre London Transport era, namely London General Omnibus Company and London United Tramways.

The separate business units created were:

Unlike the other units, Centrewest quickly branded its buses into separate groups, in the main removing the London Buses roundel in favour of various gold designs, with just the central services remaining in a slightly altered roundel based scheme. The group brands were: Challenger, Ealing Buses, Gold Arrow, Uxbridge Buses, Hillingdon local service and Orpington Buses.

Preserved Bexleybus Leyland Titan

During this time of separate business unit operation by London Buses, many new bus types were also being introduced, notably the Dennis Dart midibus as well as numerous minibuses. Several of these new vehicles received specialist branding from normal unit liveries, such as:

In the new era of private tendering, in an effort to compete with the new private operators entering the market, London Buses set up some low cost units to compete for tenders, painted in non-red liveries. The most notable were Harrow Buses[21] and Bexleybus, tendering for routes in the Harrow and Bexleyheath areas respectively.

These units were not overly successful, due to unreliable service, and industrial disputes due to lower pay rates than for the main London units. Their routes were quickly surrendered to other units or private operators.

Between September 1994 and January 1995, the separate London Buses business units were sold off. Competition rules restricted the number of units that could be bought by one group. All the units were sold either to their management or employees, or to one of the emerging national bus groups that had been growing through acquisition of deregulated companies in the rest of the UK. The exception was London Northern, which was bought by MTL, itself an expanding company formed from the privatisation of the Merseyside Passenger Transport Executive bus company.

Following sell-off, the new operators introduced new liveries, logos and trading names to many of the business units. Initially some buses appeared in liveries other than red, but an edict that all buses be 80% red saw this reversed from 1997. Some companies having been renamed, have since resumed their original identities.

The only unit not to be sold off was London Forest, which was wound up in the autumn of 1991 following poor financial performance and industrial action; its operating area was subsequently taken up by East London and Leaside Buses, although 11 of its routes in the Walthamstow area passed to private operators Capital Citybus, Thamesway Buses and County Bus.

The sell-off of the units proceeded as follows:

Capital Citybus Northern Counties bodied Leyland Olympian at Chingford station in June 1999 Centra Alexander Royale bodied Volvo Olympian Kentish Bus AEC Routemaster in July 1993 London & Country Leyland Lynx in Purley in May 1993 London Traveller East Lancs Spryte bodied Volvo B6BLE in August 1999 Preserved Metrobus Leyland Olympian

In the period before the sell off of the main business units, London saw operation by several private companies who gained tenders for routes. Many of these either ceased trading, or were ultimately purchased by large groups, some of which also bought some of the ex-London Buses units. Below is a list of private operators, some of which still operate.

Is Airport Car Service Suitable For Your Budget?

Airport Shuttle Service Price

Shuttle-UM is a transit system for the University of Maryland, College Park (UMD), which constitutes the UM acronym of the company, that operates as a unit of the university's Department of Transportation Services. The system is student-run and is supported by student fees and the university's Student Affairs department.[2] Its fleet consists of over 60 vehicles and transports approximately three million rides a year.[2] The system provides four different services: commuter, evening, charter, and demand response.[3] The latter consists of a paratransit service and a call response curb-to-curb service during the evening, while the former consists of a bus service that runs for 24 hours, seven days a week. Implied by its name, the bus service routes "shuttle" passengers to and from the university with over 20 different routes. Paid upon admission by students to the university, the services are complimentary and only certain services require university identification badges. In 2012, the company expanded to provide service to the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB) campus under the name, UM Shuttle. Additionally, a new facility was built to house Shuttle-UM's operations and fleet within the campus after over 30 years of being housed off campus.

Shuttle-UM was established in November 1972 by the University of Maryland, College Park's (UMD) Black Student Union as an initiative to promote security for students walking through campus during the evening hours. Operations began with the use of two vans to circulate campus, which were purchased by UMD's Student Government Association (SGA), the campus' student governing body, through approval by the Office of Commuter Student Affairs, a campus organization supporting students commuters. The operations were run in the basement of a residence hall on campus and consisted of running the vans on two fixed routes. By Spring 1973, the Residence Hall Association, the governing body for the campus' dormitory halls, donated an additional van which led to three fixed routes running through campus in the evening.[4] By the end of the system's first year of service, 65,000 had been transported.[4] The following year saw the addition of daytime routes to operations to parking lots and the establishment of Call-A-Ride, which was the original first curb-to-curb service for the transit system.[4] In 1975, four Mercedes Benz vans were purchased to expand the fleet to six vehicles. This same year, the name Shuttle-UM was established, three years after being a service provided by SGA, Shuttle-UM was now an independent entity for UMD.[4] Upon the transit system's independence, Charter service was added to its operations in 1975; the following year saw expansion to the curb-to-curb service with Disability Transit Service" for handicap persons; off-campus routes were established in 1976.

During the fall of 1978, Shuttle-UM's first facility was built on an off-campus parking lot on Greenhouse Road adjacent to Baltimore Avenue.[5] The new facility, known as UMD Building 013, featured a 12,000 gallon underground diesel tank, numerous maintenance bays, and a bus wash bay. Upon 1979, the project that started as a security service expanded to a transit system consisting of 10 routes with over 20 vehicles.[6] Barri Standish was hired as the first non-student full-time staff member to serve as the General Manager for Shuttle-UM to provide student guidance in transit operations.[4] Through 1985 and 1988, the Greenhouse facility was expanded to allocate growing operations with administrative offices and maintenance bays.[5] Shuttle-UM's expansion in 1985 also composed of ridership growing to 1.1 million passengers annually and employing 125 student employees that took the positions of "drivers, dispatchers, maintenance assistance, trainers, and managers."[6] By 1986, Shuttle-UM became a member of the American Public Transportation Association and the Transit Association of Maryland.[4] Within 1999 and 2001, the facility's maintenance bays were expanded to accommodate the growing fleet caused by the growing ridership; the administrative offices also underwent a further expansion in 2001 to accommodate growing employment.[5]

For several years, the annual ridership remained above 2 million; however, during the 2011-12 academic year, DOTS started an initiative that would reward their three millionth rider with free books for a school year, which ultimately commenced in their first year with 3 million riders.[7] In 2012, the construction of a brand new facility was completed on Paint Branch Drive within campus adjacent to the XFINITY Center. This new facility fit into DOTS' mission and goal to be more sustainable.

A Shuttle-UM 35 ft. Gillig Low Floor bus

The facility included geo-thermal heating and cooling systems, a green roof, and an in-ground filtration system to separate run-off diesel and storm water in the fueling area. The new facility was able to house all administration that was expanded within the years at the Greenhouse facility and featured an above-ground diesel tank that stored 2,000 gallons more.[5]

Shuttle UM Gillig Advantage at Prince George's Plaza

Shuttle-UM saw its first expansion with the introduction of its UM Shuttle service for the University of Maryland, Baltimore campus which strictly serves the surrounding Baltimore areas near campus. President Jay Perman reached an agreement with UMD to answer requests of the UMB community to obtain a shuttle service within campus. In August 2012, UM Shuttle officially launched and began to transport staff, faculty, and other members of the UMB community with three distinct routes. The vehicles for these routes are operated in Baltimore but housed in the Paint Branch facility and driven by UMD employees. Like Shuttle-UM, university ID's grant access to riding the shuttles for UMB.[8]

Shuttle-UM and UM Shuttle are complimentary services via paid student fees and UMD's Student Affairs' funds.[9][10] Additionally, living complexes and businesses pay the organization to run the service in their area, which allow riders to ride by just showing drivers a university ID, not limited to University of Maryland System schools.[11] Residents of College Park were granted access to Shuttle-UM's services via a program approved by city council in 2010, which granted residents passes to show drivers.[12][13] In September 2012, the city of Greenbelt passed a similar program to that of College Park allowing passes for its residents to use Shuttle-UM's services.[14]

Shuttle-UM, although as separate entity in the beginning, is now a branch of DOTS, along with Campus Parking Enforcement. Both are housed at the Paint Branch facility; however, customer inquires regarding parking operate out of Regents Drive Garage offices. Located at Regents Drive Garage are the directors of DOTS, which is overseen by Senior Director David Allen: the directors delegate planning and oversee activity of every branch of the corporation. Every driving staff member for Shuttle-UM that holds a Commercial Driver's License (CDL) is assigned a unit number, which are uniquely grouped to identify different departments and status'. These unit numbers are used to eliminate the usage of full names while having radio contact and have an important role in operations for the company.[5]

The Shuttle-UM and Campus Parking Enforcement operations branches of DOTS are overseen by its Senior Associate Director, Armand Scala, who directly reports to Allen. The two chief executives are regarded as being at the top realm of company operations, who work directly with numerous full-time chief operatives. Under the executives are the full-time shift supervisors, who directly manage the full-time driving staff. Student managers have the responsibility of managing student driving staff, alongside being responsible for running several departments of the organization's operations, such as Dispatch and Demand Response.[5]

The drivers for Shuttle-UM are all required to have a CDL class B, with passenger and air-brakes endorsement. These requirements are to be met in order to operate the vehicles in Shuttle-UM's fleet. Although completely composed of student drivers upon the company's inception, as of 2013, staff now features non-student full-time and part-time drivers. The full-time driving staff have a set schedule package that they select before every academic semester (Fall, Winter, Spring, and Summer) for UMCP consisting of 40 hours. Students are required to be enrolled at UMCP or University of Maryland, University College (UMUC), the latter due to the sister school sharing the UMCP campus, in order to be eligible to go through CDL training with Shuttle-UM. Students are given the opportunity to obtain their CDL granted upon that they complete a semester's worth of driving, where upon they have the option of leaving or exploring different departments to work for. Like the full-timers, students select shifts before the Spring and Fall semesters only, which are their weekly permanent shifts. Unlike full-time staff, students have more flexibility in choosing individual shifts rather than packages.[15]

Maintenance is overseen by the Fleet Maintenance Manager, who operates through numerous full-time field managers. These on-site managers are in charge of coordinating service to all vehicles in the fleet for Shuttle-UM and Campus Parking Enforcement, which both make up DOTS. Service done to these vehicles include but are not limited to preventative maintenance, DOT inspections, and fixing mechanical problems. Maintenance operates out of multiple bays located in the Paint Branch facility, which facilitates their work due to the facility also housing parking for all vehicles.[16]

The training department consists of certified CDL full-time instructors that are responsible for coordinate training to drivers, students and full-timers, who which to seek employment with Shuttle-UM and obtaining a CDL license. Training consists of multiple sessions that gives drivers numerous hours of training through range and road exercises in order to prepare them for CDL exams administered at the Motor Vehicle Administration (MVA). Upon their CDL completion, training is also responsible for giving orientations of all Shuttle-UM commercial vehicles in order to give all drivers and equal opportunity in driving routes that require different vehicles.[17]

The dispatch department is responsible for transit operations in regards to all services provided by the company, including demand response and fixed routes. All dispatchers are students, who are trained to operate the technology and equipment necessary to ensure service is operative. The dispatchers report directly to the shift supervisors upon problems arising before executing decisions that will ensure service being completed. Dispatch also coordinates all customer service inquires regarding routes, demand response, charter, staff, and campus guests. The Shuttle-UM dispatch department operates in sync with the University of Maryland Police Department (UMPD), due to the organization being a state-governed agency: this connection with UMPD provides a branch of safety to drivers and to passengers upon distress signals and accident response. As a result, Shuttle-UM dispatch uses certain police 10-codes for daily operations. Aside from dealing with transit operations, the dispatchers are responsible for recording ridership tallies that are radio communicated to them by drivers upon the completion of every run of every route, which in turn gives the organization passenger data to work with in operations.[17]

A 40 ft. Flxible Metro bus in service at Regents Drive Parking Garage. This photo was taken before all of the remaining Flxibles retired in early 2013.

Beginning with simply two routes in 1972, the company has expanded its bus service by currently having 27 routes (23 that serve UMD, 3 that serve UMB, and 1 that serves BSU). Since its existence, the company has added and dropped several of its routes. These known documented instances are noted below. At the conclusion of the 2008-2009 academic year, Shuttle-UM ceased the operation of its 101 Route One Corridor service due to low ridership. This route once had the highest ridership of all routes in operation, but at the current time only averaged over 100 passengers a day. Certain stops that the community rallied to be served were added onto the 110 Seven Springs Apartments route to compensate.[18][19] At the conclusion of the 2007-2008 academic year, the 102 Campus Connector North and 103 Campus Connector South were discontinued in favor of the 125 Campus Circulator. The campus "connector" routes were the only routes that ran through campus before the start of the evening routes. For undisclosed reasons, the routes were merged into one route that saw the continuation of service through the same areas and regions of campus that were originally served.[20][21]

At the conclusion of the 2011-12 academic year, the city of Greenbelt saw a reduction in service by Shuttle-UM. The 101 Beltway Plaza served the Beltway Plaza shopping mall by providing students a shopping outlet on the weekends. The route was last served during 2011-2012 and quietly terminated at the start of 2012-13.[3][11]

A Shuttle-UM bus stop located on the UMD campus

Additionally, the 131 Mazza Grandmarc/Enclave Franklin Park no longer ran to the Franklin Park complex in Greenbelt after 2011-12.[3][11] The creation of the 130 Greenbelt and expanded service to the 129 Franklin Park at Greenbelt Station for the 2011-12 academic year saw the merger of the 106 Greenbelt North and 119 Greenbelt South routes, which last ran at the conclusion of 2010-11.[3][6] Additional routes that saw changes included the 123 M-Square which was cancelled between 2010–11 and 2012–13, which saw its services expanded onto the 109 River Road; the 108 Powder Mill Village received a name change and service change to 108 Adelphi by not serving the apartment complex any further.[3][6]

At the conclusion of 2011-12, the 113 University Town Center and 113 University Town Center (Saturday) lost ridership and lost its University Town Center Towers complex funding sponsor. As a result, the route was to be terminated. However, negotiations between student groups and DOTS resulted in the route being kept for one more year (2012–13) under the name 113 Hyattsville which extended the service to the Hyattsville residential neighborhoods.[22] The 2012-13 year saw the cancellation of the company's "park and ride" services: 101 Burtonsville Park and Ride, 107 Laurel Park and Ride, and 120 Bowie Park and Ride. As Shuttle-UM's first aim to promote sustainability by providing service to regions further than the surrounding campus, the routes servicing Burtonsville, Bowie, and Laurel saw a decline in ridership. Riders protested its cancellation; however, on October 12, the routes were serviced for the final time while DOTS provided alternatives for the riders in reaching campus. Additionally to the decline in riders, the 124 The Universities at Shady Grove route required more buses and funds to maintain, thus the park and rides fate was determined by a budget cut necessary to maintain the 124.[23]

With the expansion of Shuttle-UM into Baltimore at the UMB campus, three routes began to service the area in 2012-13 with 701 BioPark, 702 Mount Vernon, and 703 Federal Hill servicing the immediate UMB campus seven days a week.[24]

The Shuttle-UM transit system operates primarily at the University of Maryland, College Park (UMD) campus with satellite service at the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB) and University of Baltimore (UB). There are currently 31 routes (26 serviced at UMD, 3 serviced at UMB, and 2 serviced at UB) that operate for the University System of Maryland (USM). The UMD routes hub on campus at one of its two terminals: Adele H. Stamp Student Union and Regents Drive Parking Garage, with the exception of one route (see 109 River Road). The UMB routes hub on campus at the Pearl Street Garage. The UB routes hub at one of two terminals: State Center (on campus) and Penn Station (off campus). As the name of the organization implies, the transit system operates as a "shuttle" to and from campus.

There are 15 documented routes that have been cancelled, altered, or renamed.

Scheduled bus service is also available for academic semester breaks from Stamp Student Union to areas outside of Maryland.

Transportation to Metropark in New Jersey allows access to Amtrak and New Jersey Transit routes. Bus service to the Port Authority Bus Terminal provides indirect access to JFK, LaGuardia and other transit options in New York City.

Shuttle-UM also has seasonal routes to the Cherry Hill Mall in Cherry Hill, NJ and Philadelphia.

Shuttle-UM owns over 70 vehicles used to fulfill its service. They range from a variety of builders, models, length, and engine transmission. The company numbers its series according to the year the vehicle was registered to begin service. For example, vehicle 3813 is a 2013 Gillig Low Floor bus, but was not placed in service until 2013. Thus, the 13 is added to the final two digits of Shuttle-UM's series numbering. The vehicles are also grouped in several categories: PHG (Gillig Phantom), LFG (Gillig Low Floor), FFG (40 feet (12 m) Gillig Low Floor Bus), FTL (Freightliner Champion Defender), Vans (Ford E-450, Ford E-350, Dodge Sprinter, Chevrolet Express), and Motor Coach (Setra S417).

  1. ^ a b "Transit Ridership Report Fourth Quarter 2015" (pdf). American Public Transportation Association. March 2, 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-19 – via http://www.apta.com/resources/statistics/Pages/ridershipreport.aspx. 
  2. ^ a b Handbook 2012-13, p. 2
  3. ^ a b c d e "Campus Connections" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services at University of Maryland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-14. Retrieved 2012-10-14. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Hornbake Archives. "Records of Shuttle-UM". University of Maryland, College Park. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Handbook 2012-13, p. 75
  6. ^ a b c d "Shuttle-UM Regulations (2010)". Department of Transportation Services at University of Maryland. 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-06-23. Retrieved 2012-10-13.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Shuttleregulations10" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  7. ^ "Freshmen is DOTS 3 millionth rider , wins year's worth of textbooks". Campus Drive blog. 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2012-10-14. 
  8. ^ Fishel, Ed (2012-09-13). "Bus Gratis: UM Shuttle arrives". The Voice. University of Maryland, Baltimore.  Missing or empty |url= (help)
  9. ^ "Undergraduate Fall 2012 and Spring 2013 fees". University of Maryland. Retrieved 2013-04-13. 
  10. ^ "Graduate Fall 2012 and Spring 2013 fees". University of Maryland. Retrieved 2013-04-13. 
  11. ^ a b c "Use of Shuttle-UM by Greenbelt Residents". Greenbelt, Maryland City Council. 2011-08-11. Retrieved 2012-10-14. 
  12. ^ McCarty, Alicia (2010-09-29). "Divided city council passes Shuttle-UM program extension". The Diamondback. College Park, Md. Retrieved 2010-11-12. 
  13. ^ Schuman, Jonah (2008-08-14). "Shuttle service to open in September". The Gazette. College Park, Md. Retrieved 2010-11-12. 
  14. ^ Henneberg, Bailey (2012-09-11). "Shuttle-UM kicks off in Greenbelt". Greenbelt Patch. Retrieved 2012-10-14. 
  15. ^ Handbook 2012-13, p. 33
  16. ^ Handbook 2012-13, p. 50
  17. ^ a b Handbook 2012-13, p. 30
  18. ^ "Shuttle-UM loses Route 1 service but doubles resident ridership". The Gazette. 2009-07-23. Retrieved 2014-10-14. 
  19. ^ McGonigle, Kate (2009-07-15). "Bus route changes to make up for lost line". The Diamondback. Retrieved 2014-10-14. 
  20. ^ a b Department of Transportation Service at the University of Maryland (2006-08-30). "102 Campus Connector North" (PDF). R.H. Smith School Business at the University of Maryland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-17. Retrieved 2013-01-02. 
  21. ^ a b Department of Transportation Service at the University of Maryland (2006-08-30). "102 Campus Connector South" (PDF). R.H. Smith School Business at the University of Maryland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-17. Retrieved 2013-01-02. 
  22. ^ "UMD students still have Hyattsville shuttle". Hyattsville Patch. 2012-08-16. Retrieved 2012-10-16. 
  23. ^ "Service ending October 12th, 2012" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services (UMD). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-21. Retrieved 2012-10-16. 
  24. ^ "UM Shuttle". University of Maryland, Baltimore. Archived from the original on 2013-01-15. Retrieved 2012-10-16. 
  25. ^ "104-College Park Metro Station map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  26. ^ "104-College Park Metro Station map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-06-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  27. ^ "105-The Courtyards map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  28. ^ "108-Adelphi map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  29. ^ "108-Adelphi map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-06-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  30. ^ "109-River Road map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  31. ^ "110-Seven Springs Apartments map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  32. ^ "111-Silver Spring map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  33. ^ "111-Silver Spring map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-06-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  34. ^ "113-Hyattsville map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-02-26. Retrieved 2015-03-22. 
  35. ^ "113-Hyattsville map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-06-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  36. ^ "114-University View map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  37. ^ "115-Orange map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  38. ^ "116-Purple map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  39. ^ "117-Blue map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  40. ^ "118-Gold map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  41. ^ "122 Green map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  42. ^ "124-The Universities at Shady Grove map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-10-22. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  43. ^ "125-Circulator map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  44. ^ "126-New Carrollton map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  45. ^ "126-New Carrollton map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-06-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  46. ^ "127 Mazza GrandMarc map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  47. ^ "128-The Enclave map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  48. ^ "129-Franklin Park at Greenbelt Station map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. [permanent dead link]
  49. ^ "129-Franklin Park at Greenbelt Station map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-02-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  50. ^ "130-Greenbelt map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. [permanent dead link]
  51. ^ "130-Greenbelt map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-06-01. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-02-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  52. ^ "131-The Enclave and Mazza GrandMarc map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. [permanent dead link]
  53. ^ "132-The Varsity map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  54. ^ "133-The Mall at Prince George's map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  55. ^ "134-Mazza GrandMarc and Seven Springs map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  56. ^ "135 University Connector map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-05-28. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  57. ^ "136 Indigo map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-06-15. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  58. ^ "701 BioPark/Midtown Medical Center map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Parking and Transportation Services, UM Shuttle. 2014-06-09. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-01. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  59. ^ "702 Mount Vernon map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Parking and Transportation Services, UM Shuttle. 2014-06-09. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-01. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  60. ^ "703 Federal Hill map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Parking and Transportation Services, UM Shuttle. 2014-06-09. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-01. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  61. ^ "601 State Center timetable (current)" (PDF). University of Baltimore Auxiliary Enterprises, UB Shuttle. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  62. ^ "601 State Center map (current)" (PDF). University of Baltimore Auxiliary Enterprises, UB Shuttle. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  63. ^ "602 Penn Station timetable (current)" (PDF). University of Baltimore Auxiliary Enterprises, UB Shuttle. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  64. ^ "602 Penn Station map (current)" (PDF). University of Baltimore Auxiliary Enterprises, UB Shuttle. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
Airport Taxi Service Costs