For safety and for environmental considerations Boston Airport Transportation in Alberton, most airports are built far away from cities and other residential areas. This poses an issue of traveling to and from the airport. People need transportation to the airfield when they are flying out and need to reach the airfield in time to catch their flight. Likewise, Cheap Cabs To Airport after landing at the airfield from a flight, transport from the airfield to the city is required. Both the issues are solved with private operators operating lax airfield car services.Transportation utilities provide luxury car services to and from the airport.
These are mainly chauffeur driven cars, for which travelers may book reservations online. This facility comes as a great advantage to the commuter. With an online reservation system, the traveler is confident that he will be picked up from his hotel, office or home by a cab and taken to the airport right on-time to catch his flight, the service being guaranteed.Most transportation utilities track national and international flights. Therefore, the commuter may rest assured that the transportation from the aerodrome will be available and waiting for him, even if the flight arrives late into the night.
The traveler no longer has to depend on rented cars and driving them through rush-hour traffic. After the long journey by flight, Cab To The Airport he could take the luxurious, relaxing ride to his hotel, home or office.They have professional chauffeurs who have been trained to accommodate customer needs. They possess the required expertise and knowledge to conduct the traveler to and from the destination. They know the city roads like the back of their hands and can help the traveler reach his destination on time, even if the normal city roads are choked with traffic.
Airport Travel: Self Transportation Versus Taxi, Car, or Airport Shuttle Services
Airport car service providers value the relationship with their customers and strive to maintain the required professionalism that is expected from such executive luxury service. These smart luxury car services are hard to forget once their utility has been realized.
Boston Airport Transportation in Alberton ?
Shuttle-UM is a transit system for the University of Maryland, College Park (UMD), which constitutes the UM acronym of the company, that operates as a unit of the university's Department of Transportation Services. The system is student-run and is supported by student fees and the university's Student Affairs department. Its fleet consists of over 60 vehicles and transports approximately three million rides a year. The system provides four different services: commuter, evening, charter, and demand response. The latter consists of a paratransit service and a call response curb-to-curb service during the evening, while the former consists of a bus service that runs for 24 hours, seven days a week. Implied by its name, the bus service routes "shuttle" passengers to and from the university with over 20 different routes. Paid upon admission by students to the university, the services are complimentary and only certain services require university identification badges. In 2012, the company expanded to provide service to the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB) campus under the name, UM Shuttle. Additionally, a new facility was built to house Shuttle-UM's operations and fleet within the campus after over 30 years of being housed off campus.
Shuttle-UM was established in November 1972 by the University of Maryland, College Park's (UMD) Black Student Union as an initiative to promote security for students walking through campus during the evening hours. Operations began with the use of two vans to circulate campus, which were purchased by UMD's Student Government Association (SGA), the campus' student governing body, through approval by the Office of Commuter Student Affairs, a campus organization supporting students commuters. The operations were run in the basement of a residence hall on campus and consisted of running the vans on two fixed routes. By Spring 1973, the Residence Hall Association, the governing body for the campus' dormitory halls, donated an additional van which led to three fixed routes running through campus in the evening. By the end of the system's first year of service, 65,000 had been transported. The following year saw the addition of daytime routes to operations to parking lots and the establishment of Call-A-Ride, which was the original first curb-to-curb service for the transit system. In 1975, four Mercedes Benz vans were purchased to expand the fleet to six vehicles. This same year, the name Shuttle-UM was established, three years after being a service provided by SGA, Shuttle-UM was now an independent entity for UMD. Upon the transit system's independence, Charter service was added to its operations in 1975; the following year saw expansion to the curb-to-curb service with Disability Transit Service" for handicap persons; off-campus routes were established in 1976.
During the fall of 1978, Shuttle-UM's first facility was built on an off-campus parking lot on Greenhouse Road adjacent to Baltimore Avenue. The new facility, known as UMD Building 013, featured a 12,000 gallon underground diesel tank, numerous maintenance bays, and a bus wash bay. Upon 1979, the project that started as a security service expanded to a transit system consisting of 10 routes with over 20 vehicles. Barri Standish was hired as the first non-student full-time staff member to serve as the General Manager for Shuttle-UM to provide student guidance in transit operations. Through 1985 and 1988, the Greenhouse facility was expanded to allocate growing operations with administrative offices and maintenance bays. Shuttle-UM's expansion in 1985 also composed of ridership growing to 1.1 million passengers annually and employing 125 student employees that took the positions of "drivers, dispatchers, maintenance assistance, trainers, and managers." By 1986, Shuttle-UM became a member of the American Public Transportation Association and the Transit Association of Maryland. Within 1999 and 2001, the facility's maintenance bays were expanded to accommodate the growing fleet caused by the growing ridership; the administrative offices also underwent a further expansion in 2001 to accommodate growing employment.
For several years, the annual ridership remained above 2 million; however, during the 2011-12 academic year, DOTS started an initiative that would reward their three millionth rider with free books for a school year, which ultimately commenced in their first year with 3 million riders. In 2012, the construction of a brand new facility was completed on Paint Branch Drive within campus adjacent to the XFINITY Center. This new facility fit into DOTS' mission and goal to be more sustainable.A Shuttle-UM 35 ft. Gillig Low Floor bus
The facility included geo-thermal heating and cooling systems, a green roof, and an in-ground filtration system to separate run-off diesel and storm water in the fueling area. The new facility was able to house all administration that was expanded within the years at the Greenhouse facility and featured an above-ground diesel tank that stored 2,000 gallons more.Shuttle UM Gillig Advantage at Prince George's Plaza
Shuttle-UM saw its first expansion with the introduction of its UM Shuttle service for the University of Maryland, Baltimore campus which strictly serves the surrounding Baltimore areas near campus. President Jay Perman reached an agreement with UMD to answer requests of the UMB community to obtain a shuttle service within campus. In August 2012, UM Shuttle officially launched and began to transport staff, faculty, and other members of the UMB community with three distinct routes. The vehicles for these routes are operated in Baltimore but housed in the Paint Branch facility and driven by UMD employees. Like Shuttle-UM, university ID's grant access to riding the shuttles for UMB.
Shuttle-UM and UM Shuttle are complimentary services via paid student fees and UMD's Student Affairs' funds. Additionally, living complexes and businesses pay the organization to run the service in their area, which allow riders to ride by just showing drivers a university ID, not limited to University of Maryland System schools. Residents of College Park were granted access to Shuttle-UM's services via a program approved by city council in 2010, which granted residents passes to show drivers. In September 2012, the city of Greenbelt passed a similar program to that of College Park allowing passes for its residents to use Shuttle-UM's services.
Shuttle-UM, although as separate entity in the beginning, is now a branch of DOTS, along with Campus Parking Enforcement. Both are housed at the Paint Branch facility; however, customer inquires regarding parking operate out of Regents Drive Garage offices. Located at Regents Drive Garage are the directors of DOTS, which is overseen by Senior Director David Allen: the directors delegate planning and oversee activity of every branch of the corporation. Every driving staff member for Shuttle-UM that holds a Commercial Driver's License (CDL) is assigned a unit number, which are uniquely grouped to identify different departments and status'. These unit numbers are used to eliminate the usage of full names while having radio contact and have an important role in operations for the company.
The Shuttle-UM and Campus Parking Enforcement operations branches of DOTS are overseen by its Senior Associate Director, Armand Scala, who directly reports to Allen. The two chief executives are regarded as being at the top realm of company operations, who work directly with numerous full-time chief operatives. Under the executives are the full-time shift supervisors, who directly manage the full-time driving staff. Student managers have the responsibility of managing student driving staff, alongside being responsible for running several departments of the organization's operations, such as Dispatch and Demand Response.
The drivers for Shuttle-UM are all required to have a CDL class B, with passenger and air-brakes endorsement. These requirements are to be met in order to operate the vehicles in Shuttle-UM's fleet. Although completely composed of student drivers upon the company's inception, as of 2013, staff now features non-student full-time and part-time drivers. The full-time driving staff have a set schedule package that they select before every academic semester (Fall, Winter, Spring, and Summer) for UMCP consisting of 40 hours. Students are required to be enrolled at UMCP or University of Maryland, University College (UMUC), the latter due to the sister school sharing the UMCP campus, in order to be eligible to go through CDL training with Shuttle-UM. Students are given the opportunity to obtain their CDL granted upon that they complete a semester's worth of driving, where upon they have the option of leaving or exploring different departments to work for. Like the full-timers, students select shifts before the Spring and Fall semesters only, which are their weekly permanent shifts. Unlike full-time staff, students have more flexibility in choosing individual shifts rather than packages.
Maintenance is overseen by the Fleet Maintenance Manager, who operates through numerous full-time field managers. These on-site managers are in charge of coordinating service to all vehicles in the fleet for Shuttle-UM and Campus Parking Enforcement, which both make up DOTS. Service done to these vehicles include but are not limited to preventative maintenance, DOT inspections, and fixing mechanical problems. Maintenance operates out of multiple bays located in the Paint Branch facility, which facilitates their work due to the facility also housing parking for all vehicles.
The training department consists of certified CDL full-time instructors that are responsible for coordinate training to drivers, students and full-timers, who which to seek employment with Shuttle-UM and obtaining a CDL license. Training consists of multiple sessions that gives drivers numerous hours of training through range and road exercises in order to prepare them for CDL exams administered at the Motor Vehicle Administration (MVA). Upon their CDL completion, training is also responsible for giving orientations of all Shuttle-UM commercial vehicles in order to give all drivers and equal opportunity in driving routes that require different vehicles.
The dispatch department is responsible for transit operations in regards to all services provided by the company, including demand response and fixed routes. All dispatchers are students, who are trained to operate the technology and equipment necessary to ensure service is operative. The dispatchers report directly to the shift supervisors upon problems arising before executing decisions that will ensure service being completed. Dispatch also coordinates all customer service inquires regarding routes, demand response, charter, staff, and campus guests. The Shuttle-UM dispatch department operates in sync with the University of Maryland Police Department (UMPD), due to the organization being a state-governed agency: this connection with UMPD provides a branch of safety to drivers and to passengers upon distress signals and accident response. As a result, Shuttle-UM dispatch uses certain police 10-codes for daily operations. Aside from dealing with transit operations, the dispatchers are responsible for recording ridership tallies that are radio communicated to them by drivers upon the completion of every run of every route, which in turn gives the organization passenger data to work with in operations.A 40 ft. Flxible Metro bus in service at Regents Drive Parking Garage. This photo was taken before all of the remaining Flxibles retired in early 2013.
Beginning with simply two routes in 1972, the company has expanded its bus service by currently having 27 routes (23 that serve UMD, 3 that serve UMB, and 1 that serves BSU). Since its existence, the company has added and dropped several of its routes. These known documented instances are noted below. At the conclusion of the 2008-2009 academic year, Shuttle-UM ceased the operation of its 101 Route One Corridor service due to low ridership. This route once had the highest ridership of all routes in operation, but at the current time only averaged over 100 passengers a day. Certain stops that the community rallied to be served were added onto the 110 Seven Springs Apartments route to compensate. At the conclusion of the 2007-2008 academic year, the 102 Campus Connector North and 103 Campus Connector South were discontinued in favor of the 125 Campus Circulator. The campus "connector" routes were the only routes that ran through campus before the start of the evening routes. For undisclosed reasons, the routes were merged into one route that saw the continuation of service through the same areas and regions of campus that were originally served.
At the conclusion of the 2011-12 academic year, the city of Greenbelt saw a reduction in service by Shuttle-UM. The 101 Beltway Plaza served the Beltway Plaza shopping mall by providing students a shopping outlet on the weekends. The route was last served during 2011-2012 and quietly terminated at the start of 2012-13.A Shuttle-UM bus stop located on the UMD campus
Additionally, the 131 Mazza Grandmarc/Enclave Franklin Park no longer ran to the Franklin Park complex in Greenbelt after 2011-12. The creation of the 130 Greenbelt and expanded service to the 129 Franklin Park at Greenbelt Station for the 2011-12 academic year saw the merger of the 106 Greenbelt North and 119 Greenbelt South routes, which last ran at the conclusion of 2010-11. Additional routes that saw changes included the 123 M-Square which was cancelled between 2010–11 and 2012–13, which saw its services expanded onto the 109 River Road; the 108 Powder Mill Village received a name change and service change to 108 Adelphi by not serving the apartment complex any further.
At the conclusion of 2011-12, the 113 University Town Center and 113 University Town Center (Saturday) lost ridership and lost its University Town Center Towers complex funding sponsor. As a result, the route was to be terminated. However, negotiations between student groups and DOTS resulted in the route being kept for one more year (2012–13) under the name 113 Hyattsville which extended the service to the Hyattsville residential neighborhoods. The 2012-13 year saw the cancellation of the company's "park and ride" services: 101 Burtonsville Park and Ride, 107 Laurel Park and Ride, and 120 Bowie Park and Ride. As Shuttle-UM's first aim to promote sustainability by providing service to regions further than the surrounding campus, the routes servicing Burtonsville, Bowie, and Laurel saw a decline in ridership. Riders protested its cancellation; however, on October 12, the routes were serviced for the final time while DOTS provided alternatives for the riders in reaching campus. Additionally to the decline in riders, the 124 The Universities at Shady Grove route required more buses and funds to maintain, thus the park and rides fate was determined by a budget cut necessary to maintain the 124.
With the expansion of Shuttle-UM into Baltimore at the UMB campus, three routes began to service the area in 2012-13 with 701 BioPark, 702 Mount Vernon, and 703 Federal Hill servicing the immediate UMB campus seven days a week.
The Shuttle-UM transit system operates primarily at the University of Maryland, College Park (UMD) campus with satellite service at the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB) and University of Baltimore (UB). There are currently 31 routes (26 serviced at UMD, 3 serviced at UMB, and 2 serviced at UB) that operate for the University System of Maryland (USM). The UMD routes hub on campus at one of its two terminals: Adele H. Stamp Student Union and Regents Drive Parking Garage, with the exception of one route (see 109 River Road). The UMB routes hub on campus at the Pearl Street Garage. The UB routes hub at one of two terminals: State Center (on campus) and Penn Station (off campus). As the name of the organization implies, the transit system operates as a "shuttle" to and from campus.
There are 15 documented routes that have been cancelled, altered, or renamed.
Scheduled bus service is also available for academic semester breaks from Stamp Student Union to areas outside of Maryland.
Transportation to Metropark in New Jersey allows access to Amtrak and New Jersey Transit routes. Bus service to the Port Authority Bus Terminal provides indirect access to JFK, LaGuardia and other transit options in New York City.
Shuttle-UM also has seasonal routes to the Cherry Hill Mall in Cherry Hill, NJ and Philadelphia.
Shuttle-UM owns over 70 vehicles used to fulfill its service. They range from a variety of builders, models, length, and engine transmission. The company numbers its series according to the year the vehicle was registered to begin service. For example, vehicle 3813 is a 2013 Gillig Low Floor bus, but was not placed in service until 2013. Thus, the 13 is added to the final two digits of Shuttle-UM's series numbering. The vehicles are also grouped in several categories: PHG (Gillig Phantom), LFG (Gillig Low Floor), FFG (40 feet (12 m) Gillig Low Floor Bus), FTL (Freightliner Champion Defender), Vans (Ford E-450, Ford E-350, Dodge Sprinter, Chevrolet Express), and Motor Coach (Setra S417).
- ^ a b "Transit Ridership Report Fourth Quarter 2015" (pdf). American Public Transportation Association. March 2, 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-19 – via http://www.apta.com/resources/statistics/Pages/ridershipreport.aspx.
- ^ a b Handbook 2012-13, p. 2
- ^ a b c d e "Campus Connections" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services at University of Maryland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-14. Retrieved 2012-10-14.
- ^ a b c d e f Hornbake Archives. "Records of Shuttle-UM". University of Maryland, College Park. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
- ^ a b c d e f Handbook 2012-13, p. 75
- ^ a b c d "Shuttle-UM Regulations (2010)". Department of Transportation Services at University of Maryland. 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-06-23. Retrieved 2012-10-13. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Shuttleregulations10" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- ^ "Freshmen is DOTS 3 millionth rider , wins year's worth of textbooks". Campus Drive blog. 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2012-10-14.
- ^ Fishel, Ed (2012-09-13). "Bus Gratis: UM Shuttle arrives". The Voice. University of Maryland, Baltimore. Missing or empty |url= (help)
- ^ "Undergraduate Fall 2012 and Spring 2013 fees". University of Maryland. Retrieved 2013-04-13.
- ^ "Graduate Fall 2012 and Spring 2013 fees". University of Maryland. Retrieved 2013-04-13.
- ^ a b c "Use of Shuttle-UM by Greenbelt Residents". Greenbelt, Maryland City Council. 2011-08-11. Retrieved 2012-10-14.
- ^ McCarty, Alicia (2010-09-29). "Divided city council passes Shuttle-UM program extension". The Diamondback. College Park, Md. Retrieved 2010-11-12.
- ^ Schuman, Jonah (2008-08-14). "Shuttle service to open in September". The Gazette. College Park, Md. Retrieved 2010-11-12.
- ^ Henneberg, Bailey (2012-09-11). "Shuttle-UM kicks off in Greenbelt". Greenbelt Patch. Retrieved 2012-10-14.
- ^ Handbook 2012-13, p. 33
- ^ Handbook 2012-13, p. 50
- ^ a b Handbook 2012-13, p. 30
- ^ "Shuttle-UM loses Route 1 service but doubles resident ridership". The Gazette. 2009-07-23. Retrieved 2014-10-14.
- ^ McGonigle, Kate (2009-07-15). "Bus route changes to make up for lost line". The Diamondback. Retrieved 2014-10-14.
- ^ a b Department of Transportation Service at the University of Maryland (2006-08-30). "102 Campus Connector North" (PDF). R.H. Smith School Business at the University of Maryland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-17. Retrieved 2013-01-02.
- ^ a b Department of Transportation Service at the University of Maryland (2006-08-30). "102 Campus Connector South" (PDF). R.H. Smith School Business at the University of Maryland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-17. Retrieved 2013-01-02.
- ^ "UMD students still have Hyattsville shuttle". Hyattsville Patch. 2012-08-16. Retrieved 2012-10-16.
- ^ "Service ending October 12th, 2012" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services (UMD). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-21. Retrieved 2012-10-16.
- ^ "UM Shuttle". University of Maryland, Baltimore. Archived from the original on 2013-01-15. Retrieved 2012-10-16.
- ^ "104-College Park Metro Station map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "104-College Park Metro Station map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-06-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "105-The Courtyards map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "108-Adelphi map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "108-Adelphi map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-06-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "109-River Road map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "110-Seven Springs Apartments map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "111-Silver Spring map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "111-Silver Spring map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-06-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "113-Hyattsville map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-02-26. Retrieved 2015-03-22.
- ^ "113-Hyattsville map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-06-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "114-University View map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "115-Orange map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "116-Purple map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "117-Blue map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "118-Gold map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "122 Green map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "124-The Universities at Shady Grove map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-10-22. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "125-Circulator map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "126-New Carrollton map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "126-New Carrollton map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-06-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "127 Mazza GrandMarc map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "128-The Enclave map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "129-Franklin Park at Greenbelt Station map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. [permanent dead link]
- ^ "129-Franklin Park at Greenbelt Station map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-02-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "130-Greenbelt map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. [permanent dead link]
- ^ "130-Greenbelt map and timetable (summer)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-06-01. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-02-01. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "131-The Enclave and Mazza GrandMarc map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04. [permanent dead link]
- ^ "132-The Varsity map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "133-The Mall at Prince George's map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "134-Mazza GrandMarc and Seven Springs map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- ^ "135 University Connector map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-05-28. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
- ^ "136 Indigo map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Department of Transportation Services, Shuttle-UM. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-06-15. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
- ^ "701 BioPark/Midtown Medical Center map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Parking and Transportation Services, UM Shuttle. 2014-06-09. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-01. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
- ^ "702 Mount Vernon map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Parking and Transportation Services, UM Shuttle. 2014-06-09. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-01. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
- ^ "703 Federal Hill map and timetable (current)" (PDF). Parking and Transportation Services, UM Shuttle. 2014-06-09. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-01. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
- ^ "601 State Center timetable (current)" (PDF). University of Baltimore Auxiliary Enterprises, UB Shuttle. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
- ^ "601 State Center map (current)" (PDF). University of Baltimore Auxiliary Enterprises, UB Shuttle. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
- ^ "602 Penn Station timetable (current)" (PDF). University of Baltimore Auxiliary Enterprises, UB Shuttle. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
- ^ "602 Penn Station map (current)" (PDF). University of Baltimore Auxiliary Enterprises, UB Shuttle. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
Space Shuttle(Redirected from Shuttle bus service) A transit bus operating in Campinas, Brazil
Public transport bus services are generally based on regular operation of transit buses along a route calling at agreed bus stops according to a published public transport timetable.Parisian Omnibus, late nineteenth century A public transport timetable for bus services in England in the 1940s and 1950s
While there are indications of experiments with public transport in Paris as early as 1662, there is evidence of a scheduled "bus route" from Market Street in Manchester to Pendleton in Salford UK, started by John Greenwood in 1824.
Another claim for the first public transport system for general use originated in Nantes, France, in 1826. Stanislas Baudry, a retired army officer who had built public baths using the surplus heat from his flour mill on the city's edge, set up a short route between the center of town and his baths. The service started on the Place du Commerce, outside the hat shop of a M. Omnès, who displayed the motto Omnès Omnibus (Latin for "everything for everybody" or "all for all") on his shopfront. When Baudry discovered that passengers were just as interested in getting off at intermediate points as in patronizing his baths, he changed the route's focus. His new voiture omnibus ("carriage for all") combined the functions of the hired hackney carriage with a stagecoach that travelled a predetermined route from inn to inn, carrying passengers and mail. His omnibus had wooden benches that ran down the sides of the vehicle; passengers entered from the rear.
In 1828, Baudry went to Paris where he founded a company under the name Entreprise générale des omnibus de Paris, while his son Edmond Baudry founded two similar companies in Bordeaux and in Lyon.
A London newspaper reported on July 4, 1829 that "the new vehicle, called the omnibus, commenced running this morning from Paddington to the City", operated by George Shillibeer.
The first omnibus service in New York began in 1829, when Abraham Brower, an entrepreneur who had organized volunteer fire companies, established a route along Broadway starting at Bowling Green. Other American cities soon followed suit: Philadelphia in 1831, Boston in 1835 and Baltimore in 1844. In most cases, the city governments granted a private company—generally a small stableman already in the livery or freight-hauling business—an exclusive franchise to operate public coaches along a specified route. In return, the company agreed to maintain certain minimum levels of service.
In 1832 the New York omnibus had a rival when the first trams, or streecars started operation along Bowery, which offered the excellent improvement in amenity of riding on smooth iron rails rather than clattering over granite setts, called "Belgian blocks". The streetcars were financed by John Mason, a wealthy banker, and built by an Irish-American contractor, John Stephenson. The Fifth Avenue Coach Company introduced electric buses to Fifth Avenue in New York in 1898.
In 1831, New Yorker Washington Irving remarked of Britain's Reform Act (finally passed in 1832): "The great reform omnibus moves but slowly." Steam buses emerged in the 1830s as competition to the horse-drawn buses.
The omnibus extended the reach of the emerging cities. The walk from the former village of Paddington to the business heart of London in the City was a long one, even for a young man in good condition. The omnibus thus offered the suburbs more access to the inner city. The omnibus encouraged urbanization. Socially, the omnibus put city-dwellers, even if for only half an hour, into previously-unheard-of physical intimacy with strangers, squeezing them together knee-to-knee. Only the very poor remained excluded. A new division in urban society now came to the fore, dividing those who kept carriages from those who did not. The idea of the "carriage trade", the folk who never set foot in the streets, who had goods brought out from the shops for their appraisal, has its origins in the omnibus crush.
John D. Hertz founded the Yellow Coach Manufacturing Company in 1923 and then sold a majority of shares to General Motors in 1925.
From the 1920s General Motors and others started buying up streetcar systems across the United States with a view to replacing them with buses in what became known as the Great American Streetcar Scandal. This was accompanied by a continuing series of technical improvements: pneumatic "balloon" tires during the early 1920s, monocoque body construction in 1931, automatic transmission in 1936, diesel engines in 1936, 50+ passengers in 1948, and air suspension in 1953.
The arrest of Rosa Parks in 1955 for not giving up her seat to a white man on a public bus is considered one of the catalyst of the Civil Rights Movement within the United States.A bi-articulated bus on the RIT bus rapid transit system in Curitiba, Brazil An urban bus in Gómez Palacio, Durango, Mexico.
The names of different types of bus services vary according to local tradition or marketing, although services can be classified into basic types based on route length, frequency, purpose of use and type of bus used.
Long-distance coach services (US: Intercity bus line) are bus services operated over long distances between cities. These services can form the mainstay of the travel network in countries with poor railway infrastructure. Different coach operators may band together on a franchise or connecting basis to offer a branded network that covers large distances, such as Trailways and National Express. These networks can even operate internationally, such as Eurolines of Europe. Interurban bus services are primarily aimed at linking together one or more urban centres, and as such are often run as express services while travelling in the intermediate rural areas, or even only call at two terminal points as a long distance shuttle service. Some interurban services may be operated as high specification luxury services, using coaches, in order to compete with railways, or link areas not rail connected. Interurban services may often terminate in central bus stations rather than on street stops. Other interurban services may specifically call at intermediate villages and may use slower transit buses or dual purpose buses.
A shuttle bus service in Sydney. School Bus See also: Public transport timetable
Many public bus services are run to a specific timetable giving specific times of departure and arrival at waypoints along the route. These are often difficult to maintain in the event of traffic congestion, breakdowns, on/off bus incidents, road blockages or bad weather. Predictable effects such as morning and evening rush hour traffic are often accounted for in timetables using past experience of the effects, although this then prevents the opportunity for drafting a ‘clock face’ timetable where the time of a bus is predictable at any time through the day. Predictable short term increases in passenger numbers may be dealt with by providing “duplicate” buses, where two or more buses operate the same slot in the timetable. Unpredictable problems resulting in delays and gaps in the timetabled service may be dealt with by ‘turning’ a bus early before it reaches it terminus, so that it can fill a gap in the opposite direction, meaning any passengers on the turned bus need to disembark and continue on a following bus. Also, depending on the location of the bus depot, replacement buses may be dispatched from the depot to fill in other gaps, starting the timetable part way along the route.
There is a common cliché that people “wait all day, and then three come along at once”, in relation to a phenomenon where evenly timetabled bus services can develop a gap in service followed by buses turning up almost simultaneously. This occurs when the rush hour begins and numbers of passengers at a stop increases, increasing the loading time, and thus delay scheduled service. The following bus then catches up because it begins to be delayed less at stops due to fewer passengers waiting. This is called bus bunching. This is prevented in some cities such as Berlin by assigning every stop arrival times where scheduled buses should arrive no earlier than specified.
Some services may have no specific departure times, the timetable giving the frequency of service on a route at particular phases of the day. This may be specified with departure times, but the over-riding factor is ensuring the regularity of buses arriving at stops. These are often the more frequent services, up to the busiest bus rapid transit schemes. For headway-based schemes, problems can be managed by changing speed, delaying at stops and leap-frogging a bus boarding at a stop.
Services may be strictly regulated in terms of level of adherence to timetables, and how often timetables may be changed. Operators and authorities may employ on street bus inspectors to monitor adherence in real time. Service operators often have a control room, or in the case of large operations, route controllers, who can monitor the level of service on routes and can take remedial action if problems occur. This was made easier with the technological advances of two way radio contact with drivers, and vehicle tracking systems.
Bus services have led to the implementation of various types of infrastructure now common in many urban and suburban settings. The most prevalent example is the ubiquitous bus stop. Large interchanges have required the building of bus stations. In roads and streets, infrastructure for buses has resulted in modifications to the kerb line such as protrusions and indentations, and even special kerb stones. Entire lanes or roads have been reserved for buses in bus lanes or busways. Bus fleets require large storage premises often located in urban areas, and may also make use of central works facilities.Bus station in rural Russia See also: On-time performance
The level and reliability of bus services is often dependent on the quality of the local road network and levels of traffic congestion, and the population density. Services may be organised on tightly regulated networks with restrictions on when and where services operate, while other services are operated on an ad hoc basis in the model of share taxis.
Increasingly, technology is being used to improve the information provided to bus users, with vehicle tracking technologies to assist with scheduling, and to achieve real time integration with passenger information systems that display service information at stops, inside buses, and to waiting passengers through personal mobile devices or text messaging.
Bus drivers may be required to conduct fare collection, inspect a travel pass or free travel pass, or oversee stored-value card debiting. This may require the fitting of equipment to the bus. Alternatively, this duty and equipment may be delegated to a conductor who rides on the bus. In other areas, public transport buses may operate on a zero-fare basis, or ticket validation may be through use of on-board/off-board proof-of-payment systems, checked by roving ticket controllers who board and alight buses at random.
In some competitive systems, an incumbent operator may introduce a “low cost unit” paying lower wages, in order to be able to offer lower fares, using older buses cascaded from a main fleet to also reduce costs. In some sectors, operators such as Megabus (both in the UK and in North America) have attempted to emulate the low cost airlines model in order to attract passengers through low fares, by offering no frills bus services.See also: List of bus operating companies
Public transport bus operation is differentiated from other bus operation by the fact the owner or driver of a bus is employed by or contracted to an organisation whose main public duty or commercial interest is to provide a public transport service for passengers to turn up and use, rather than fulfilling private contracts between the bus operator and user. Public transport buses are operated as a common carrier under a contract of carriage between the passenger and the operator.
The owners of public transport buses may be the municipal authority or transit authority that operates them, or they may be owned by individuals or private companies who operate them on behalf of the authorities on a franchise or contract basis. Other buses may be run entirely as private concerns, either on an owner-driver basis, or as multi-national transport groups. Some countries have specifically deregulated their bus services, allowing private operators to provide public bus services. In this case, an authority may make up the shortfall in levels of private service provision by funding or operating ‘socially necessary’ services, such as early or late services, on the weekends, or less busy routes. Ownership/operation of public transport buses can also take the form of a charitable operation or not for profit social enterprises.
Larger operations may have fleets of thousands of vehicles. At its peak in the 1950s, the London Transport Executive owned a bus fleet of 8,000 buses, the largest in the world. Many small operators have only a few vehicles or a single bus owned by an owner driver. Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation holds the Guinness world record of having largest fleet of buses with 22,555 buses.
In all cases in the developed world, public transport bus services are usually subject to some form of legal control in terms of vehicle safety standards and method of operation, and possibly the level of fares charged and routes operated.
Increasingly bus services are being made accessible, often in response to regulations and recommendations laid out in disability discrimination laws. This has resulted in the introduction of flexible bus services, and the introduction of Low-floor buses with features aimed at helping elderly, disabled or impaired passengers.